EDC Germany (PolyGram Hanover / PDO / PMDC / Universal M & L, Germany)
~ Pressing plant
CD pressing plant in Langenhagen, near Hanover, Germany.
On August 17, 1982, the world's first mass production of Compact Discs began in Langenhagen, operating under the name PolyGram Hanover, West-Germany until 1985. PolyGram transferred control of their West German manufacturing and distribution activities from PRS Hannover to a joint venture between Philips and DuPont Optical that was operative by January 1986 (legally effective May 1986). PDO stands for Philips and Du Pont Optical.
In September 1991 the Recording Centre and plant in Langenhagen were transferred back to PRS GmbH.
In January 1993 the company was renamed PMDC (PolyGram Manufacturing & Distribution Centres GmbH), operating under this name until March 1999.
On 01 April 1999 Universal M & L (Universal Manufacturing & Logistics GmbH) was officially established (after Seagram combined PolyGram and MCA into Universal Music Group).
In 2005 EDC, Germany (Entertainment Distribution Company GmbH) acquired the manufacturing and distribution facilities of the Universal Music Group. EDC was the largest, fully integrated optical disc manufacturing and distribution site in Europe and commenced pressing vinyl records in late 2015. Seven Toolex Alpha presses had been installed, with a capacity of 15 million records per year. The company became insolvent and its assets were to be auctioned in May and June 2017.
1982 to 1985 - PolyGram Hanover, West-Germany:
Usually printed on artwork as: "CD is manufactured by PolyGram in Hannover, West Germany." or "Manufactured by PolyGram, Hannover, West Germany." The text is often not removed on a repress by one of the successors.
The matrix string consisted of a catalog number part and a 2-digit glass master version number, e.g.: 800104 2 01
Since approx. 1984 a symbol (∗ or #) was appended to the string, denoting the laser beam recorder (LBR) used for writing the glass master, e.g.: 7599 03273-2 2895 077 01 #
1986 to Sep 1991 - PDO, Germany:
The plant is directly credited in the CD matrix as either 'MADE IN W. GERMANY BY PDO' or 'MADE IN GERMANY BY PDO' after the German reunification (may be missing on discs manufactured in the first months of 1986).
The matrix string from the glass master was unchanged: <catalog number part> <2 digits> <symbol>
Additional letters were introduced, stamped into the main matrix ring (similar to EMI Uden discs, probably numbering mothers), starting with 'A' and progressing to 2-letter codes.
In approx. 1989 new symbols (new LBRs) were introduced (+, / and >) e.g.: 839 518-2 01 +
Sep 1991 to 1992 - PolyGram / PRS Hannover:
The plant is NOT directly credited in the CD matrix. Mostly there are no credits on the whole release. The mother/stamper imprint was reduced to 'MADE IN GERMANY'.
The structure of the matrix main ring was unchanged: <catalog number part> <2 digits> <symbol> Machine stamped letters have increased to starting with Y.
Instead of beeing stamped into the main ring, these codes often appear in the inner hub area on the opposite side of 'MADE IN GERMANY'. (Later on the code appears in the hub area only)
1993 to Mar 1999 - PMDC, Germany:
The plant is directly credited in the CD matrix as 'MADE IN GERMANY BY PMDC'.
In 1994 IFPI was implemented in Langenhagen. (see section SID Codes)
Around 1995 the matrix includes a sequential 8-digit serial number '5xxxx xxx' or '5xxxxxxx', e.g.: 0113482 50666096 01 /
This serial number can occasionally be found on early-1990s discs (usually '5xxxx xxx') but was generally printed in the matrix later on.
After ZZ mother/stamper codes have been reset. On later discs mostly 1-letter codes are to be found as the numbering starts with every new glass master anew.
Mar 1999 to 2005 - Universal M & L:
The plant is directly credited in the CD matrix string as 'MADE IN GERMANY BY UNIVERSAL M & L'.
However, in the first days of Universal M & L, CDs were also produced without naming the manufacturer ('MADE IN GERMANY' only, just like before PMDC).
Since the beginning, discs pressed in Langenhagen always have been fully coated (no transparent hub area). Universal M & L introduced discs with clear hub area.
The glass master imprint was widely unchanged, with matrix numbers increasing.
Since matrix number 51461389, matrices usually include the Universal logo.
2005 to 2017 - EDC, Germany:
The plant is mostly credited in the CD matrix string as 'Made in Germany by EDC' or from approx. 2007 'MADE IN GERMANY BY EDC'. Since sometime in the 2010s, the "MADE IN GERMANY BY EDC" text may no longer be present, but all other matrix elements including the A-ZZ letter can still be used to identify this manufacturer.
CD and CDr Matrix patterns:
0XXXX XXX XXX-X 0X [symbol] 5XXXXXXX (apparently on releases manufactured for Universal Music Group and its labels/companies)
0XXXX XXXXX XXX 0X [symbol] 5XXXXXXX (apparently on releases for other labels/companies/clients)
Since 1994 discs pressed at this plant can be identified by mould SID code IFPI 01**
Discs glass mastered in Langenhagen can be identified by mastering SID code IFPI L001, L002, L003 or L008.
EDC introduced further codes, related to the matrix string symbol (both specifying the LBR):
✳ --> IFPI LV26 (or, rarely on releases from 2005: IFPI L001)
+ --> IFPI LV27 (or, rarely: IFPI L002)
# --> IFPI LZ87 (or, rarely: IFPI L008)
P --> IFPI L963 (very small letters)
E --> IFPI LQ57 (only a short time/very rarely 2016?)
/ --> IFPI L001 (only a short time in 2005?)
C --> IFPI L016 and IFPI L017 (only a short time 2012-2013?)
(Source for this list: Discogs, retrieved 2021)
Remark on the list: Only the highlighted codes were usually used. Nevertheless there are documented discs that look like glass mastered in Langenhagen:
With E instead of the symbol and IFPI LQ57, also found on discs "manufactured by optimal media GmbH" in Röbel.
With C instead of the symbol and IFPI L017, a SID known to be used in Alsdorf.
SID codes from EDC's predecessors might have been used, too. Mastering SID IFPI L963 is assigned to P+O Pallas in Diepholz and these discs were probably glass mastered there.
|owner:||PolyGram, Hanover, West Germany (CD pressing plant in Langenhagen, near Hanover, Germany) (from 1982-08 until 1985, from 1991-09 until 1992-12)|
PDO (German / West German branch of Philips DuPont Optical) (from 1986 until 1991-09)
PMDC (Germany) (from 1993-01 until 1999-03)
Universal M & L, Germany (CD manufacturing plant) (from 1999-04 until 2005)
EDC, Germany (Entertainment Distribution Company GmbH) (from 2005 until 2017)