Boris Emmanuilovich Khaykin (Russian: Борис Эммануилович Хайкин; 26 October [O.S. 13 October] 1904 – May 10, 1978) was a Russian Jewish conductor who was named a People's Artist of the USSR in 1972.
Khaykin was born in Minsk, then part of the Russian Empire (and nowadays the capital of Belarus). He studied at the Moscow Conservatory under Nikolai Malko and Konstantin Saradzhev. He was artistic director of the Little Leningrad Opera Theatre in 1936-43 and the principal conductor at the Kirov Theatre in 1944-53, where he conducted the première of Sergei Prokofiev's Betrothal in a Monastery on 3 November 1946. He moved to the Bolshoi Theatre in 1954. He died in Moscow.