Aníbal Carmelo Troilo (July 11, 1914 – May 18, 1975 in Buenos Aires) was an Argentine tango musician.
Troilo was a bandoneon player, composer, arranger and bandleader in Argentina. His orquesta típica was among the most popular with social dancers during the golden age of tango (1940-1955), but he changed to a concert sound by the late 1950s.
Troilo's orchestra is best known for its instrumentals and also recorded with many vocalists, such as Francisco Fiorentino, Alberto Marino, Floreal Ruiz, Roberto Goyeneche, Raul Beron, and Edmundo Rivero. The rhythmic instrumentals and the recordings with vocalist Francisco Fiorentino from 1940-41 are the favorite recordings for social dancing in contemporary tango salons (milongas). The renowned bandoneonist Astor Piazzolla played in and arranged for his orquesta típica during the period 1939-1944.