Gustav Mahler

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Gustav Mahler (German: [ˈɡʊstaf ˈmaːlɐ]; 7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was a late-Romantic Austrian composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation. A Jew, he was born in the village of Kalischt, Bohemia, in what was then the Austrian Empire, now Kaliště in the Czech Republic. His family later moved to nearby Iglau (now Jihlava), where Mahler grew up.

As a composer, Mahler acted as a bridge between the 19th-century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect which included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era. After 1945 the music was discovered and championed by a new generation of listeners; Mahler then became a frequently performed and recorded composer, a position he has sustained into the 21st century.

Born in humble circumstances, Mahler displayed his musical gifts at an early age. After graduating from the Vienna Conservatory in 1878, he held a succession of conducting posts of rising importance in the opera houses of Europe, culminating in his appointment in 1897 as director of the Vienna Court Opera (Hofoper). During his ten years in Vienna, Mahler experienced regular opposition and hostility from the anti-Semitic press. Nevertheless, his innovative productions and insistence on the highest performance standards ensured his reputation as one of the greatest of opera conductors, particularly as an interpreter of the stage works of Wagner and Mozart. Late in his life he was briefly director of New York's Metropolitan Opera and the New York Philharmonic.

Mahler's œuvre is relatively small; for much of his life composing was necessarily a part-time activity while he earned his living as a conductor, but he devoted as much time as he could to his compositions, faithfully reserving his summer months for intense periods of creative concentration, supplemented as time permitted during his active concert seasons with the tasks of editing and orchestrating his expansive works. Aside from early works such as a movement from a piano quartet composed when he was a student in Vienna, Mahler's works are designed for large orchestral forces, symphonic choruses and operatic soloists. Most of his twelve symphonic scores are very large-scale works, often employing vocal soloists and choruses in addition to augmented orchestral forces. These works were often controversial when first performed, and several were slow to receive critical and popular approval; exceptions included his Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, and the triumphant premiere of his Eighth Symphony in 1910. Some of Mahler's immediate musical successors included the composers of the Second Viennese School, notably Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Anton Webern. Shostakovich and Benjamin Britten are among later 20th-century composers who admired and were influenced by Mahler. The International Gustav Mahler Institute was established in 1955, to honour the composer's life and work.

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Discography

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Album

Year Title Artist Rating Releases
1962 Symphony No. 1 in D major (Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra feat. conductor: Paul Kletzki) Gustav Mahler 1
1967 Das Lied von der Erde Gustav Mahler; Christa Ludwig, Fritz Wunderlich, Philharmonia Orchestra, Otto Klemperer 4
1975 Das Lied von der Erde Gustav Mahler; Christa Ludwig, René Kollo, Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 2
1977 Symphonie No. 1 D-dur (Boston Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Seiji Ozawa) Gustav Mahler 1
1978 Symphony No. 1 Mahler; London Philharmonic Orchestra, Klaus Tennstedt 2
1980 Symphony no. 9 Gustav Mahler; London Philharmonic Orchestra, Klaus Tennstedt 1
1981 Das Lied von der Erde (London Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Sir Colin Davis, soprano: Jessye Norman, tenor: Jon Vickers) Gustav Mahler 1
1982 Symphonie No. 1 D-dur Mahler; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Claudio Abbado 1
1982 Symphony No. 2 in C minor "Resurrection" Gustav Mahler 1
1982 Symphony No. 4 (Cleveland Orchestra feat. conductor: George Szell) Gustav Mahler 1
1983 Symphony No. 4 in G major Mahler; London Philharmonic Orchestra, Klaus Tennstedt, Lucia Popp 3
1983 Symphony No. 2 ''Resurrection'' Mahler; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Sir Georg Solti 1
1983 Symphony no. 9 Mahler; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Georg Solti 2
1984 Symphonie No. 3 d-moll (Wiener Philharmoniker, Konzertvereinigung Wiener Staatsopernchor, Wiener Sängerknaben feat. conductor: Claudio Abbado, contralto: Jessye Norman) Gustav Mahler 1
1984 Das Lied Von Der Erde Gustav Mahler 1
1984 Symphonie No. 4 (Wiener Philharmoniker feat. conductor: Claudio Abbado, Mezzosopran: Frederica von Stade) Gustav Mahler 1
1984 Symphony No. 1 Mahler; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Sir Georg Solti 2
1984 Symphony No. 4 in G major (Chicago Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Sir Georg Solti) Gustav Mahler 1
1985 Das klagende Lied Mahler; City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, Simon Rattle, Helena Döse, Alfreda Hodgson, Robert Tear, Sean Rea 4
1985 Symphony No. 1 / Adagietto from Symphony No. 5 (Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra feat. conductor: Lorin Maazel) Gustav Mahler 1
1985 Symphony No. 1 in D Major (Columbia Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Bruno Walter) Gustav Mahler 1
1985 Symphony No. 5 & 10 Mahler; London Philharmonic Orchestra, Klaus Tennstedt 1
1986 Quartet no. 14 in D minor / Der Tod und das Mädchen (Lied) Franz Schubert, arr. Gustav Mahler; English Chamber Orchestra, Jeffrey Tate, Ann Murray 1
1986 Symphonie No. 4 (Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Eliahu Inbal) Gustav Mahler 1
1986 Symphonie no. 9 Mahler; Leonard Bernstein 1
1986 Symphonies Nos. 7, 9 & 10 Mahler; New York Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein 2
1986 Symphonies Nos. 8, 10 Mahler; Wiener Philharmoniker, Leonard Bernstein 1
1986 Symphony No. 1 "Titan" (Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Lorin Maazel) Gustav Mahler 1
1986 Symphony No. 7 Mahler; Leonard Bernstein 1
1987 Symphony No. 2 in C minor Mahler; Boston Symphony Orchestra, Seiji Ozawa 1
1987 Symphony No. 5 in C-sharp minor (Los Angeles Philharmonic feat. conductor: Zubin Mehta) Gustav Mahler 2
1987 Symphony No. 8 (London Philharmonic Orchestra & Choir, Tiffin School Boys Choir feat. conductor: Klaus Tennstedt) Gustav Mahler 1
1987 Symphony No. 8 (Soloists, Choruses & Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Eliahu Inbal) Gustav Mahler 1
1988 Symphonie No. 2 »Resurrection · Auferstehung« Gustav Mahler; New York Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein 3 1
1988 Symphony No. 1 “Titan” Mahler; Slovak Philharmonic, Zdeněk Košler 2
1988 Symphonie Nr. 6 / Rückert-Lieder (Chicago Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Claudio Abbado) Gustav Mahler 1
1988 Des Knaben Wunderhorn Mahler; London Symphony Orchestra, George Szell, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau 2
1988 Symphonie No. 1 "Der Titan" (Sir Colin Davis & Symphonie-Orchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks) Gustav Mahler 1
1988 Symphony No. 1 (Berliner Philharmoniker feat. conductor: Bernard Haitink) Gustav Mahler 1
1988 Symphony No. 2 "Resurrection" Mahler; London Symphony Orchestra, Gilbert Kaplan 2
1988 Symphony No. 3 / Rückert-Lieder (London Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Michael Tilson Thomas) Gustav Mahler 1
1988 Symphony No. 3 in D minor Gustav Mahler; London Symphony Orchestra, Jascha Horenstein, Norma Procter 2
1989 Symphonie No. 1 Mahler; Concertgebouworkest Amsterdam, Leonard Bernstein 5 2
1989 Symphonie no. 4 Mahler; Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Philharmonia Orchestra, Otto Klemperer 2
1989 Symphony No. 5 (Chicago Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Claudio Abbado) Gustav Mahler 2
1989 Symphonie Nr. 3 Mahler; New York Philharmonic, New York Choral Artists, Brooklyn Boys' Choir, Leonard Bernstein, Christa Ludwig 1
1989 Symphonie No. 3 / Symphonie No. 10 (Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks feat. conductor: Rafael Kubelík) Gustav Mahler 1
1989 Symphonie No. 6 (Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks feat. conductor: Rafael Kubelík) Gustav Mahler 1
1989 Symphonie No. 7 (Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks feat. conductor: Rafael Kubelík) Gustav Mahler 1
1989 Symphony No. 4 (Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks feat. conductor: Rafael Kubelík) Gustav Mahler 1

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