Widely known under its short name Большой симфонический оркестр (БСО) which means Grand Symphony Orchestra.
Originally founded as All-Union Radio Committee Orchestra, later becoming All-Union Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra. In 1993 it was named after Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky – its short name in English is now Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra.
For all the variety of names translated into English see that compilation.
See Wikipedia: Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra, "During Soviet times, the orchestra was sometimes known as the USSR State Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra, the USSR State Radio Symphony Orchestra, or the USSR All-Union National Radio and Central Television Symphony Orchestra."