Antonín Dvořák (composer)

~ Person

Legal name: Antonín Leopold Dvořák


Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( d(ə-)VOR-zha(h)k; Czech: [ˈantoɲiːn ˈlɛopold ˈdvor̝aːk] ; 8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer. Dvořák frequently employed rhythms and other aspects of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia, following the Romantic-era nationalist example of his predecessor Bedřich Smetana. Dvořák's style has been described as "the fullest recreation of a national idiom with that of the symphonic tradition, absorbing folk influences and finding effective ways of using them."

Dvořák displayed his musical gifts at an early age, being an apt violin student from age six. The first public performances of his works were in Prague in 1872 and, with special success, in 1873, when he was 31 years old. Seeking recognition beyond the Prague area, he submitted a score of his First Symphony to a prize competition in Germany, but did not win, and the unreturned manuscript was lost until it was rediscovered many decades later. In 1874, he made a submission to the Austrian State Prize for Composition, including scores of two further symphonies and other works. Although Dvořák was not aware of it, Johannes Brahms was the leading member of the jury and was highly impressed. The prize was awarded to Dvořák in 1874 and again in 1876 and in 1877, when Brahms and the prominent critic Eduard Hanslick, also a member of the jury, made themselves known to him. Brahms recommended Dvořák to his publisher, Simrock, who soon afterward commissioned what became the Slavonic Dances, Op. 46. These were highly praised by the Berlin music critic Louis Ehlert in 1878, the sheet music (of the original piano 4-hands version) had excellent sales, and Dvořák's international reputation was launched at last.

Dvořák's first piece of a religious nature, his setting of Stabat Mater, was premiered in Prague in 1880. It was very successfully performed in London in 1883, leading to many other performances in the United Kingdom and United States. In his career, Dvořák made nine invited visits to England, often conducting performances of his own works. His Seventh Symphony was written for London. Visiting Russia in March 1890, he conducted concerts of his own music in Moscow and Saint Petersburg. In 1891, Dvořák was appointed as a professor at the Prague Conservatory. In 1890–91, he wrote his Dumky Trio, one of his most successful chamber music pieces.

In 1892, Dvořák moved to the United States and became the director of the National Conservatory of Music of America in New York City. The President of the National Conservatory of Music in America, Jeannette Thurber, offered Dvořák an annual salary of $15,000 – an incredibly lavish sum for the era (equivalent to $488,556 in 2022), twenty-five times what he was paid at the Prague Conservatory. While in the United States, Dvořák wrote his two most successful orchestral works: the Symphony From the New World, which spread his reputation worldwide, and his Cello Concerto, one of the most highly regarded of all cello concerti.

In the summer of 1893, Dvořák moved from New York City to Spillville, Iowa, following the advice of his secretary, J.J. Kovarík. Dvořák had originally planned to come back to Bohemia, but Spillville was made up of mostly Czech immigrants, and thus he felt less homesick; Dvořák referred to it as his "summer Vysoka." This is where he wrote his most famous piece of chamber music, his String Quartet in F major, Op. 96, which was later nicknamed the American Quartet. Shortly after his time in Iowa, Dvořák extended his contract at the National Conservatory for another two years. However, the economic crisis of April 1893 resulted in Thurber's husband's loss of income, and directly influenced the National Conservatory's funding. Shortfalls in payment of his salary, along with increasing recognition in Europe and an onset of homesickness, led him to leave the United States and return to Bohemia in 1895.

All of Dvořák's nine operas, except his first, have librettos in Czech and were intended to convey the Czech national spirit, as were some of his choral works. By far the most successful of the operas is Rusalka. Among his smaller works, the seventh Humoresque and the song "Songs My Mother Taught Me" are also widely performed and recorded. He has been described as "arguably the most versatile... composer of his time".

The Dvořák Prague International Music Festival is a major series of concerts held annually to celebrate Dvořák's life and works.

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1967Symphony no. 9 in E minor from the new worldAntonín Dvořák; Česká filharmonie, Karel Ančerl2
1996The Unknown ToscaniniDvořák / Beethoven; New York Philharmonic Orchestra, Toscanini1


1995Symphony no. 9 "From the New World" / Symphonic Variations / Slavonic Dance no. 2Antonín Dvořák; BBC Symphony Orchestra, Sir Charles Groves1
2012Serenade for Winds / Symphony No. 9 'From the New World'Dvořák; London Symphony Orchestra, Wiener Philharmoniker, István Kertész1


2010Coll. radio classique Vol. 7 DvorakAntonín Dvořák1
New World Symphony, Moldau, The Bartered BrideAntonín Dvořák1


2008A Decade With DavidAntonín Dvořák; Grand Rapids Symphony, David Lockington1


1954Songs by Grieg and DvorakGrieg, Dvořák; Dorothy Warenskjold, Concert Arts Orchestra, George Greeley51
1956Quartet in F major, op. 95 “American” / Quartet in E-flat major, op. 51Dvořák; Budapest String Quartet1
1957Symphony no. 5 in E minor, op. 95 “From the New World”Dvořák; The Cleveland Orchestra, George Szell4
1958Symphony no. 5 in E minor ('From the New World') Opus 95Dvořák; The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Rafael Kubelík1
1958New World SymphonyDvořák; Chicago Symphony, Fritz Reiner2
1958Cello ConcertoDvořák; Rostropovich, Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Sir Adrian Boult1
1959Symphony no. 4 in G major, op. 88Dvořák; George Szell, The Cleveland Orchestra2
1959New World Symphony (No. 5 in E minor)Dvorak; Vienna Festival Orchestra, Philip Vernal2
1960"New World" Symphony / "Carnaval" OvertureAntonín Dvořák; Philharmonia Orchestra, Sawallisch2
1960Symphony No. 9 in E minor "From the New World"Antonín Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Talich1
1962Dvořák: Cello Concerto in B minor, op. 104 / Bruch: Kol Nidrei / Tchaikovsky: Variations on a Rococo ThemeDvořák, Bruch, Tchaikovsky; Janos Starker, London Symphony Orchestra, Antal Dorati4
1962Konzert für Violoncello und Orchester h-moll, op. 104Antonín Dvořák; Pierre Fournier, Berliner Philharmoniker, George Szell3
1963Symphonie N° 9 en mi mineur, op. 95 "Nouveau monde"Dvorak; Orchestre Philharmonique Tchèque, Karel Ancerl1
1964Streicherserenade op. 22 / Bläserserenade op. 44Antonín Dvořák; Sinfonie-Orchester des NDR Hamburg, Hans Schmidt‐Isserstedt1
1965Slavonic Dances, op. 46 / Slavonic Dances, op. 72Dvořák; The Cleveland Orchestra, George Szell5
1967Symphony no. 9 "From the New World" / "Othello" OvertureDvořák; London Symphony Orchestra, István Kertész3
1967Symphony no. 9 "From the New World"Dvořák; Antal Doráti, Philharmonia Orchestra2
1968Cello ConcertoAntonín Dvořák; Anja Thauer, Česká filharmonie, Zdeněk Mácal1
1968Symphony No. 9 in E Minor ("From the New World")Dvořák; Alexander Gibson, London Philharmonic Orchestra1
1969Dvořák: Cellokonzert / Tschaikowsky: Rokoko‐VariationenDvořák, Tschaikowsky; Berliner Philharmoniker, Mstislav Rostropovich, Herbert von Karajan53
1969Symphony no. 9 in E minor, op. 95 “New World”Dvořák; Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, István Kertész4
1970Dvořák: Serenade for Strings / Grieg: Holberg SuiteDvořák, Grieg; Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Neville Marriner1
1971Cello Concerto, Op. 104 / Waldesruhe, Op. 68 No. 5Dvořák; Jacqueline du Pré, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Daniel Barenboim4
1972Dvořák: Cello Concerto / Bruch: Kol NidreiDvořák, Bruch; Pablo Casals, George Szell1
1972Piano Quartets nos. 1 & 2Dvořák; Beaux Arts Trio, Walter Trampler2
1973Aus der Neuen Welt - Symphonie Nr. 5 (9) E-Moll Op. 95Dvořák; Herbert von Karajan, Berliner Philharmoniker1
1973Symphonie no. 9 »Aus der Neuen Welt«Dvořák; Rafael Kubelik, Berliner Philharmoniker1
1975Funk & Wagnalls Family Library of Great Music, Album 15: Dvořák: Ninth Symphony (New World)Antonín Dvořák; Hamburg Pro Musica Symphony Orchestra, Hans‐Jürgen Walther1
1975Hungarian & Slavonic DancesBrahms, Dvořák; London Symphony Orchestra, Willi Boskovsky2
1975Symphonie du nouveau mondeAntonín Dvořák; San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, Seiji Ozawa1
1976Streichquartette No. 8 & No. 10Antonín Dvořák; Prager Streichquartett1
1977Cello WorksDvořák; Miloš Sádlo, Alfréd Holeček, Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Neumann1
1978Piano ConcertoDvořák; Sviatoslav Richter, Bavarian State Orchestra, Carlos Kleiber3
1978Symphonie No. 9 "Du Nouveau Monde"Dvořák; Koninklijk Concertgebouworkest, Sir Colin Davis1
1979Symphony no. 8 in G major, op. 88Antonín Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Neumann2
1980Symphony no. 9 “From the New World”Antonín Dvořák; Bamberger Symphoniker, Heinrich Hollreiser4
1980Symphony no. 9 "From the New World"Antonín Dvořák; Wiener Philharmoniker, Kirill Kondrashin54
1980Symphony no. 9 In E minor, op. 95 “From the New World”Dvořák; Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra, Leonard Slatkin1
1981New World SymphonyDvořák; New York Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein3
1981Serenades op. 22 & 44Dvořák; Academy of St Martin in the Fields, Neville Marriner4
1981Serenades for StringsTchaikovsky, Dvořák; Liszt Ferenc Chamber Orchestra, János Rolla2
1982StreicherserenadenTschaikowsky, Dvořák; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan2
1982Huit danses hongroises / Cinq danses slavesBrahms, Dvorak; Orchestre Philharmonique de Vienne, Fritz Reiner1
1982Stabat MaterAntonín Dvořák; Gabriela Beňačková, Ortrun Wenkel, Peter Dvorský, Jan‐Hendrik Rootering, Pražský filharmonický sbor, Česká filharmonie, Wolfgang Sawallisch3
1982Stabat MaterDvořák, Zdeněk Košler, Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra, Slovak Philharmonic Chorus1
1982Serenade in E Op. 22 / Waldesruhe / Notturno in B Op. 40Dvořák; Douglas Davis, Los Angeles Symphony, Gerard Schwarz1
1983“New World” SymphonyDvořák; James Levine, Chicago Symphony Orchestra2
1983Dvořák: Trio no. 4 in E minor "Dumky" / Suk: ElegyDvořák, Suk; Suk Trio1
1983Dvořák: Cello Concerto / Bruch: Kol NidreiDvořák, Bruch; Lynn Harrell, Philharmonia Orchestra, Vladimir Ashkenazy1
1983Symphony nos. 8 & 9 "From the New World"Antonín Dvořák; Wiener Philharmoniker, Lorin Maazel52
1983Symphony no. 9 “From the New World”Dvořák; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Sir Georg Solti4
1983Symphonie no. 9 "Aus der Neuen Welt" / Karneval-OuvertüreDvořák; Wiener Philharmoniker, Lorin Maazel3
1983Symphony No. 9 in E minor, op. 95 "From the New World" / Carnival OvertureAntonín Dvořák; London Philharmonic Orchestra, Enrique Bátiz1
1984Cello Concerto in B minor, op. 104 / WaldesruheAntonín Dvořák; Frans Helmerson, The Gothenburg S.O., Neeme Järvi1
1984RusalkaDvořák; Beňačková, Ochman, Drobková, Novák, Czech Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra, Václav Neumann2
1984Symphony no. 8 / Nocturne for StringsAntonín Dvořák; London Philharmonic Orchestra, Vernon Handley1
1984Symphony No. 9 in E minor, Op. 95 ''From The New World''Dvořák; Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Klaus Tennstedt1
1984Dvořák: The Complete Symphonies, Cassette No. 2Antonín Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Neumann1
1984Dvořák: The Complete Symphonies, Cassette No. 6Antonín Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, & Václav Neumann1
1984Dvořák: The Complete Symphonies, Cassette No. 4Antonín Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Neumann1
1984Dvořák: The Complete Symphonies, Cassette No. 3Antonín Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Neumann1
1984Dvořák: The Complete Symphonies, Cassette No. 5Antonín Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Neumann1
1984Dvořák: Symphonie No.7Antonín Dvořák;Wiener Philharmoniker,Lorin Maazel1
1984LegendsDvořák; Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, David Zinman2
1984Slavonic Dances / American SuiteDvořák; Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Antal Doráti1
1984Slavonic Dances and RhapsodyAntonín Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Neumann2
1984Symphonies 7, 8 & 9 "New World"Dvořák; Minnesota Orchestra, Neville Marriner1
1984Symphony no. 9 in E minor “From the New World”Dvořák; Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Klaus Tennstedt1
1984Symphony No. 3 in E flat major / Scherzo capricciosoAntonín Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Neumann1
1984Serenade for Strings in E / Serenade for Wind Instruments in D minorDvořák; The Chamber Orchestra of Europe, Alexander Schneider2
1985Slavonic Dances, Opp. 46 & 72 (March 1985 recording)Antonín Dvořák; Václav Neumann, Czech Philharmonic Orchestra4
1985Serenades, opp. 22 & 44Antonín Dvořák; Orpheus Chamber Orchestra2
1985Dvořák: Symphonie no. 9 / Smetana: MoldauDvořák, Smetana; Wiener Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan54
1985Dvorak: "Dumky" Trio / Mendelssohn: Piano Trio No. 1 (1985 recording)Dvořák, Mendelssohn; Beaux Arts Trio1
1985Dvorak: Sonatina / 4 Romantische Stucke / Smetana: Aus der HeimatDvořák, Smetana; Itzhak Perlman, Samuel Sanders1
1985Dvorak: From the New World / Smetana: MoldauDvořák, Smetana; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Karel Ančerl1
1985Symphony no. 9 "From the New World"Dvořák; Columbia Symphony Orchestra, Bruno Walter1
1985Smetana: Die Moldau / Dvorak: Slawische Tänze / Tchaikovsky: Dornröschen / Tchaikovsky: Romeo und JuliaBedřich Smetana, Antonín Dvořák, Пётр Ильич Чайковский; London Festival Orchestra, George Ralph Warren1
1985Slavonic Dances (1972 recording)Dvořák; Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Václav Neumann1
1985Streichquartett Nr. 10 Es-dur, op. 51 / Streichquartett e-mollAntonín Dvořák, Giuseppe Verdi; Vermeer Quartet1
1985Slavonic Dances, op. 46 and op. 72Antonín Dvořák; Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi3
1986Cello Concerto Op. 104Dvořák; Yo‐Yo Ma, Berliner Philharmoniker, Lorin Maazel2
1986Beethoven: Violin Romances / Dvořák: Romance, Op. 11 / Schubert: Konzertstück / Rondo / PolonaiseBeethoven, Dvořák, Schubert; Pinchas Zukerman, St. Paul Chamber Orchestra2
1986Concert OverturesAntonín Dvořák; Ulster Orchestra, Vernon Handley3
1986Dvorák: Piano Trio no. 4 in E minor, op. 90 "Dumky" / Smetana: Piano Trio in G minorDvořák, Smetana; Borodin Trio1
1986Dvořák: Klavierquintett, op. 81 / Martinů: Sonatine für zwei Violinen und KlavierAntonín Dvořák, Bohuslav Martinů; Die Kammermusiker Zürich, Werner Bärtschi1
1986Dvořák: String Quartet, op. 96 “American” / Smetana: String Quartet no. 1 “From My Life”Dvořák, Bedřich Smetana; Emerson String Quartet1
1986Stabat Mater, op. 58Antonín Dvořák; Orchestre de la Radio Ljubljana, Marko Munih6
1986Symphony no. 7Dvořák; The Cleveland Orchestra, Christoph von Dohnányi1
1986Symphony no. 9 “From the New World”Dvořák; Cleveland Orchestra, Christoph von Dohnányi2
1986String Quartet in D minor, op. 34 / String Quartet in E-flat major, op. 51Dvořák; American String Quartet2
1986Serenade for Strings, op. 22 / Serenade for Wind, op. 44Antonín Dvořák; Philharmonia Orchestra, Christopher Warren‐Green3
1986Slawische Tänze · Slavonic Dances opp. 46 & 72Antonín Dvořák; Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks, Rafael Kubelik4

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