Пётр Ильич Чайковский (Russian romantic composer)

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (/ˈpjtər ɪˈljɪ ˈkɒfski/; Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский; tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893), often anglicized as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, was a Russian composer of the late-Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884, by Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension.

Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant. There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time and no system of public music education. When an opportunity for such an education arose, he entered the nascent Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1865. The formal Western-oriented teaching he received there set him apart from composers of the contemporary nationalist movement embodied by the Russian composers of The Five, with whom his professional relationship was mixed. Tchaikovsky's training set him on a path to reconcile what he had learned with the native musical practices to which he had been exposed from childhood. From this reconciliation, he forged a personal but unmistakably Russian style—a task that did not prove easy. The principles that governed melody, harmony and other fundamentals of Russian music ran completely counter to those that governed Western European music; this seemed to defeat the potential for using Russian music in large-scale Western composition or for forming a composite style, and it caused personal antipathies that dented Tchaikovsky's self-confidence. Russian culture exhibited a split personality, with its native and adopted elements having drifted apart increasingly since the time of Peter the Great. This resulted in uncertainty among the intelligentsia about the country's national identity—an ambiguity mirrored in Tchaikovsky's career.

Despite his many popular successes, Tchaikovsky's life was punctuated by personal crises and depression. Contributory factors included his early separation from his mother for boarding school followed by his mother's early death, the death of his close friend and colleague Nikolai Rubinstein, and the collapse of the one enduring relationship of his adult life, which was his 13-year association with the wealthy widow Nadezhda von Meck. His homosexuality, which he kept private, has traditionally also been considered a major factor, though some musicologists now downplay its importance. Tchaikovsky's sudden death at the age of 53 is generally ascribed to cholera; there is an ongoing debate as to whether cholera was indeed the cause of death, or if it was accidental or self-inflicted.

While his music has remained popular among audiences, critical opinions were initially mixed. Some Russians did not feel it was sufficiently representative of native musical values and expressed suspicion that Europeans accepted the music for its Western elements. In an apparent reinforcement of the latter claim, some Europeans lauded Tchaikovsky for offering music more substantive than base exoticism, and said he transcended stereotypes of Russian classical music. Others dismissed Tchaikovsky's music as "lacking in elevated thought," according to longtime New York Times music critic Harold C. Schonberg, and derided its formal workings as deficient because they did not stringently follow Western principles.

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Year Title Artist RatingReleases
1957 Encores David Oistrakh, Vladimir Yampolsky 2
1958 The World of Immortal Serenades Frank Chacksfield & His Orchestra 1
1959 Concert in Rhythm II Ray Conniff 1
1962 Balalaika Favorites Osipov State Russian Folk Orchestra, Vitaly Gnutov 5
1962 Inspiration The Norman Luboff Choir 1
1963 Tchaikovsky in Phase Four London Festival Orchestra 1
1966 Classics Up to Date James Last Orchestra 4
1967 Nocturne for Four The Lansdowne String Quartet 1
1969 Gems for Orchestra Stanley Black 1
1970 1812 Overture London Philharmonic Orchestra, Charles Mackerras 5
1971 The Phase 4 World of Leopold Stokowski Leopold Stokowski 1
1972 Stuart Burrows sings Favourite Sacred Songs (Ambrosian Singers, Wyn Morris, organist Martin Neary) Stuart Burrows 2
1973 "Humoresque": Favorite Violin Encores Isaac Stern 3
1974 Classics Up to Date, Volume 3 James Last 4
1975 Der Karneval der Tiere Wiener Philharmoniker, Karl Böhm, Karlheinz Böhm 1
1976 A Romantic Collection Van Cliburn 1
1978 Capriccio Italien - Capriccio Espagnol Arthur Fiedler & Boston Pops 1
1978 Classics Up to Date, Volume 5 James Last 2
1979 Encores, Volume 2 Itzhak Perlman, Samuel Sanders 1
1979 Pops Christmas Party Arthur Fiedler & Boston Pops Orchestra 2
1982 Capriccio Italien / A Night on Bare Mountain / The Sorcerer's Apprentice / Roumanian Rhapsody No. 1 Dallas Symphony Orchestra, Eduardo Mata 1
1983 Russian Orchestral Showpieces Moscow Radio Symphony Orchestra, Vladimir Fedoseyev 1
1985 Still Life Annie Haslam 3
1985 Trompeten Intermezzo Lennart Axelsson 2
1987 Pomp & Pizazz Erich Kunzel, Cincinnati Pops Orchestra 1
1987 Con Amore Brahms, Kreisler, Elgar; Kyung Wha Chung 2
1987 Music for a Romantic Mood Clive Lythgoe 1
1987 Piano Masterpieces Silvia Čápová 1
1987 Romantic Piano Favourites, Volume 1 Balázs Szokolay 2
1987 Tchaikovsky - 1812 Overture Various Artists 1
1987 The Complete Transcriptions Sergei Rachmaninoff; Sequeira Costa 1
1987 The Moscow Sessions Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra, Lawrence Leighton Smith 1
1988 Welt der Symphonie Various Artists 3
1988 Romantic Piano Favourites, Volume 2 Péter Nagy 2
1988 Romantic Piano Favourites, Volume 3 Balázs Szokolay 2
1988 Romantic Piano Favourites, Volume 4 Péter Nagy 1
1988 Favorite Piano Pieces Walter Klien 1 1
1988 Nutcracker San Francisco Ballet Orchestra 1
1988 Orchestral Dances Various Artists 5 1
1988 Popular Classics (The London Symphony Orchestra) Various Artists 1 1
1988 Romantic Piano Favourites, Volume 5 Balázs Szokolay 2
1988 Sabre Dance Various Artists 4 1
1988 Tchaikovsky 1812 Various Artists 2 3
1988 Victrola Sampler, Vol. 1 Various Artists 1
1988 Wunschkonzert / Kleine Stücke - Grosse Meister (disc 2) Various Artists 2 1
1989 Romantic Piano Favourites, Volume 9 Balázs Szokolay 2
1989 Favourite Classics London Festival Orchestra, Ross Pople 2
1989 Favourite Encores for String Quartet (Delmé Quartet) The Delmé String Quartet 2
1989 Everything You Hear Is True Various Artists 1
1989 Hightech Konzert Various Artists 1
1989 Perchance to Dream: A Lullaby Album Carol Rosenberger 1
1989 Romantic Classics: Violin & Piano Concerto, Volume 3 Various Artists 2
1989 Swan Lake The Essential Highlights Mark Ermler 1
1989 Symphony Under the Stars Sydney Symphony Orchestra, Stuart Challender 1
1989 Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake / Minkus: La Bayadere (The Bolshoi Theatre Orchestra) Various Artists 1
1990 Majestic Marches Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra, Richard Hayman 2
1990 Violin Miniatures Takako Nishizaki, Jenő Jandó 4
1990 A Romantic Collection Van Cliburn 1
1990 Classics by Moonlight James Last 3
1990 Millennium: Russian Choral Music Washington Cathedral Choral Society, J. Reilly Lewis 1
1990 Reflections Roger Wagner Chorale 1
1990 The Instruments of Classical Music, Volume 7: The Piano Various Artists 1
1990 Vladimir Horowitz Collection Владимир Самойлович Горовиц 1
1990 White Christmas Arthur Fiedler & Boston Pops Orchestra 1
1991 Engineer’s Choice Various Artists 1
1991 Zwischen Tag und Traum, Volume 1 Various Artists 1
1991 The Nutcracker Suite Modern Mandolin Quartet 1
1991 Return to Russia Мстислав Ростропович 1
1991 Classic CD, Volume 16 Various Artists 1
1991 Together Plácido Domingo & Itzhak Perlman 1
1991 Classic CD, Volume 19 Various Artists 1
1991 Battle Music Symfonický orchestr Československého rozhlasu, Ondrej Lenárd 2
1991 Classical Jukebox, Vol. II André Kostelanetz & His Orchestra 1
1991 Classics for Children Boston Pops, Arthur Fiedler, Sir Alec Guinness 1
1991 Commercial classics : 20 classical themes from Australian television commercials Various Artists 1
1991 Concert Favorites Sir Adrian Boult, New Symphony Orchestra of London 1
1991 Kleine Stücke großer Meister Vol. 2 Various Artists 1
1991 Meditation Mischa Maisky, Pavel Gililov 2
1991 Tchaikovsky - Gounod - Delibes Various Artists 1
1991 Tchaikovsky Sextet Borodin Sextet Arensky Quartet (Arienski Ensemble) Various Artists 1
1992 Classic CD, Volume 23 Various Artists 1
1992 Classic CD, Volume 24 Various Artists 1
1992 Adagio Mischa Maisky, Orchestre de Paris, Semyon Bychkov 1
1992 Classic CD, Volume 30 Various Artists 1
1992 A Russian Spectacular Various Artists 1
1992 Cello Masterpieces Gaspar Cassadó 1
1992 Classic CD, Volume 32 Various Artists 1
1992 Classics for Lovers Various Artists 1
1992 Debut Sarah Chang 1
1992 Elisabeth Söderström & Kerstin Meyer Elisabeth Söderström, Kerstin Meyer, Jan Eyron 1
1992 Encore! Midori, Robert McDonald 1
1992 Leonidas Kavakos Plays Debussy, Kreisler, Paganini, Schubert, Tchaïkovsky, Wieniawski & more Leonidas Kavakos, Péter Nagy 1
1992 Passport To Russia : Berlitz Passport - The Music Of Russia Various Artists 1
1992 Red Square Blue: Jazz Impressions of Russian Composers Fred Hersch, James Newton, Toots Thielemans, Phil Woods, Erik Friedlander, Steve LaSpina & Jeff Hirshfield 1
1992 The HMV Collection Sampler Various Artists 2
1992 The Nutcracker Suite London Symphony Orchestra 1
1993 Classic CD, Volume 33 Various Artists 1
1993 Classic CD, Volume 36 Various Artists 1
1993 Encore! Katia & Marielle Labèque 1

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