Пётр Ильич Чайковский (Russian romantic composer)

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (/ˈpjtər ɪˈljɪ ˈkɒfski/; Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский; tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893), often anglicized as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, was a Russian composer of the late-Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884, by Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension.

Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant. There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time and no system of public music education. When an opportunity for such an education arose, he entered the nascent Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1865. The formal Western-oriented teaching he received there set him apart from composers of the contemporary nationalist movement embodied by the Russian composers of The Five, with whom his professional relationship was mixed. Tchaikovsky's training set him on a path to reconcile what he had learned with the native musical practices to which he had been exposed from childhood. From this reconciliation, he forged a personal but unmistakably Russian style—a task that did not prove easy. The principles that governed melody, harmony and other fundamentals of Russian music ran completely counter to those that governed Western European music; this seemed to defeat the potential for using Russian music in large-scale Western composition or for forming a composite style, and it caused personal antipathies that dented Tchaikovsky's self-confidence. Russian culture exhibited a split personality, with its native and adopted elements having drifted apart increasingly since the time of Peter the Great. This resulted in uncertainty among the intelligentsia about the country's national identity—an ambiguity mirrored in Tchaikovsky's career.

Despite his many popular successes, Tchaikovsky's life was punctuated by personal crises and depression. Contributory factors included his early separation from his mother for boarding school followed by his mother's early death, the death of his close friend and colleague Nikolai Rubinstein, and the collapse of the one enduring relationship of his adult life, which was his 13-year association with the wealthy widow Nadezhda von Meck. His homosexuality, which he kept private, has traditionally also been considered a major factor, though some musicologists now downplay its importance. Tchaikovsky's sudden death at the age of 53 is generally ascribed to cholera; there is an ongoing debate as to whether cholera was indeed the cause of death, or if it was accidental or self-inflicted.

While his music has remained popular among audiences, critical opinions were initially mixed. Some Russians did not feel it was sufficiently representative of native musical values and expressed suspicion that Europeans accepted the music for its Western elements. In an apparent reinforcement of the latter claim, some Europeans lauded Tchaikovsky for offering music more substantive than base exoticism, and said he transcended stereotypes of Russian classical music. Others dismissed Tchaikovsky's music as "lacking in elevated thought," according to longtime New York Times music critic Harold C. Schonberg, and derided its formal workings as deficient because they did not stringently follow Western principles.

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Year Title Artist RatingReleases
2013 Symphony no. 3 / Capriccio Italien Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Sofia Festival Orchestra, Julian Kovatchev 1
2013 Tchaïkovsky: Piano Trio op. 50 / Arensky: Piano Trio no. 1 op. 32 Tchaïkovksy, Arensky; Trio Wanderer 1
2013 Tchaikovsky: The Seasons / Balakirev: Islamey Tchaikovsky, Balakirev; Yefim Bronfman 1
2014 Piano Concertos nos. 1 & 2 Tchaikovsky; Denis Matsuev, Mariinsky Orchestra, Valery Gergiev 2
2014 Excursion Henry Eccles, Mikhail Glinka, Peter Tchaikovsky, Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Ernest Bloch, Arne Hellan; Erling Sunnarvik 1
2014 Coleção Folha Mestres da música clássica, volume 8: Piotr Tchaikovsky Piotr Tchaikovsky 1
2014 The Nutcracker (complete) Tchaikovsky; Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi 1
2014 Grande Sonate / The Seasons Tchaikovsky; Alexander Paley 2
2014 Russian Soul Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev, Shostakovich; Apollon Musagete Quartett 1
2014 Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto / Arensky: Quartet Tchaikovsky, Arensky; Philippe Quint, Sofia Philharmonic orchestra, Martin Panteleev, Lily Francis, Claudio Bohorquez, Nicolas Altstaedt 1
2015 Iolanta Tchaikovsky; Anna Netrebko, Sergey Skorokhodov, Alexey Markov, Vitalij Kowaljow - Slovenian Philharmonic Orchestra, Emmanuel Villaume 1
2015 BBC Music, Volume 23, Number 10: Sir Malcolm Sargent conducts Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 4 Piotr Ilich Tchaikovsky 1
2015 Lang Lang in Paris Chopin, Tchaikovsky; Lang Lang 3
2015 Peter Tschaikowsky’s Dornröschen Peter Tschaikowsky; Ensemble Blechzehn 1
2015 Silent Moods Kapp, Larsson, Fordell, Blomdahl, Englund, Oja, Mediņš, Merikanto, Tchaikovsky; Ostrobothnian Chamber Orchestra, Juha Kangas 1
2015 Tchaikovsky 1 / Prokofiev 2 Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev; Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin, James Gaffigan, Kirill Gerstein 1
2016 Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto / Stravinsky: Les noces Tchaikovsky, Stravinsky; Patricia Kopatchinskaja, MusicAeterna, Teodor Currentzis 1
2016 Tchaikovsky Tchaikovsky; Jan Vogler, Frankfurt Radio Symphony, Andrés Orozco-Estrada, Moritzburg Festival Ensemble 1
2016 Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto no. 2 / Khachaturian: Piano Concerto Tchaikovsky, Khachaturian; Royal Scottish National Orchestra, Peter Oundjian, Xiayin Wang 1
2016 Tchaikovsky 4 Tchaikovsky; Arctic Philharmonic Orchestra, Christian Lindberg 1
2016 Complete Works for Violin and Orchestra Tchaikovsky; Jennifer Koh, Alexander Vedernikov, Odense Symphony Orchestra 1
2016 Piano Concerto no. 2 / Concert Fantasia Tchaikovsky; Eldar Nebolsin, Michael Stern, New Zealand Symphony Orchestra 1
1812 Overture Tchaikovsky; Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Antal Doráti 2
1812 Overture / Piano Concerto No. 1 (London Symphony Orchestra feat. piano: Edmund Catlin) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Ballets (extraits) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Capriccio Italien, op. 45 / Capriccio Espagnol, op. 34 Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov; Kiril Kondrashin, RCA Victor Symphony Orchestra 1
Casse Noisette Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Classic Collection, Volume 10: Symphony no. 6 “Pathetique” & Romeo and Juliet / Symphony no. 2 Tchaikovsky, Sibelius; The Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy 1
Complete Piano Works, Volume II Tchaikovsky; Viktoria Postnikova 1
Complete Piano Works, Volume III Tchaikovsky; Viktoria Postnikova 1
Complete Piano Works, Volume V Tchaikovsky; Viktoria Postnikova 1
Complete Piano Works, Volume VI Tchaikovsky; Viktoria Postnikova 1
Complete Piano Works, Volume VII Tchaikovsky; Viktoria Postnikova 1
Complete String Quartets Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Connoisseur Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Der Nussknacker Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
El Cascanueces (Orquesta Sinfónica de Westminster) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Eugène Onéguine Tchaïkovski; Galina Vichnievskaïa, Evgueni Belov, Sergueï Lemechev, Orchestre du Bolchoï, Boris Khaïkine 1
Im Herzen der Klassik: Tschaikowski: Klavierkonzert Nr. 1 / Fantasie-Ouvertüre (Prager Symphoniker feat. conductor Richard Kapp, piano: Michael Ponti / Utah Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor Maurice Abravanel) Pjotr Iljitsch Tschaikowski 1
Klavierkonzert No. 1 / Violinkonzert / Serenade / Rokoko-Variationen Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Klavierkonzert No. 1 in b-moll, Op. 23 / Ouverture Solenelle (1812) Op. 49 (Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra feat. cond: Bystrik Rezucha) Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra, Bystrík Režucha 1
Klavierkonzert No.1 Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Klavierkonzert Nr. 1 Peter Tschaikowsky 1
Klavierkonzert Nr. 1 b-moll op. 23 / Fantasie-Ouvertüre 'Romeo und Julia' Tschaikowsky; Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Charles Dutoit, Martha Argerich 1
Klavierkonzerte Nr. 1 op. 23 & Nr. 3 op. 75 Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Konzert für Klavier / Mozartiana Suite No. 4 Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Konzert für Violine und Orchester D-Dur Op. 35 (Staatliches Sinfonieorchester der USSR feat. conductor: Kyrill Kondraschin, violin: David Oistrach) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
La Belle au Bois Dormant Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
La Lac des cygnes (Orchestre symphonique de la R.T.V. d'U.R.S.S. feat. conductor: Vladimir Fedosseiev) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Le Lac des Cygnes Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (excerpts), Op 41 (St. Petersburg Chamber Choir feat. conductor: Nikolai Korniev) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Mad About Tchaikovsky Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Manfred Symphony / The Voyevode Tchaikovsky; CSR Symphony Orchestra, Ondrej Lenárd 1
Marko Munih : Le Lac des Cygnes / Casse Noisette Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Mussorgsky/Ravel: Pictures at an Exhibition / Rimsky-Korsakov: Capriccio espagnol / Tchaikovsky: Capriccio italien Mussorgsky / Ravel, Rimsky-Korsakov, Tchaikovsky; Leonard Bernstein, New York Philharmonic 1
Naturally Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Nutcracker Suite (Philadelphia Orchestra) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
On Wings of Song Beethoven, Brahms, Chopin, Massenet, Mendelssohn, Ravel, Schubert, Schumann, Tchaikovsky; Elly Ameling, Rudolf Jansen 1
Ouvertüre »1812« / Marche slave / Francesca da Rimini Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Daniel Barenboim 1
Ouverture solennelle "1812" Piotr Tchaikovsky; Boston Symphony Orchestra, Orchestra of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, Sir Colin Davis 1
Ouvertüre solonelle 1812 - Slawischer MArsch - Capriccio italien - Ouvertüre F-dur Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Pathetic Symphony / Barcarole / Festival Overture "1812" (Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra feat. conductor: Bystrik Rezucha / Sylvia Capova) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Pathétique Beethoven, Tchaikovsky; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Daniel Barenboim 1
Piano Concerto #1 in B-flat minor, op. 23 Tchaikovsky; Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Georg Solti, Clifford Curzon 1
Piano Concerto No. 1 Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Piano Concerto No. 1 / Capriccio Italien Tchaikovsky; Peter Toperczer, Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra, Bystrík Režucha 1
Piano Concerto no. 1, in B minor, op. 23 / Overture Solenelle (1812), op. 49 Tchaikovsky; Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra, Bystrík Režucha, Peter Toperczer 1
Piano Concerto No. 1, Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Piano Concerto no. 2 Tchaikovsky; Viktoria Postnikova, Vienna Symphony Orchestra, Gennadi Rozhdestvensky 1
Piano Concerto No.1 / Violin Concerto Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Sir Colin Davis, Claudio Arrau, Salvatore Accardo 1
Piano Concertos Tchaikovsky, Grieg; Arthur Rubinstein 1
Piano Sonata in c#, 18 Pieces Op. 72 Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Piano Trio Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Itzhak Perlman, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Lynn Harrell 1
Piano trio in A minor, op. 50 Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Borodin Trio 1
Pomp and Circumstance Sir Edward Elgar, Hector Berlioz, Felix Mendelssohn, Ottorino Respighi, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Gabriel Prokofiev, Giacomo Meyerbeer 1
Popular Tchaikovsky Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Rococo Tchaikovsky, CPE Bach, Stravinsky; Pieter Wispelwey, Musikkollegium Winterthur, Jonathan Morton 1
Romeo & Juliet / Nutcracker Suite Tchaikovsky; The Cleveland Orchestra, Lorin Maazel 1
Romeo and Juliet / Swan Lake Suite Tchaikovsky; Alberto Lizzio, London Festival Orchestra, Laurence Siegel, New Philharmonic Orchestra 1
Romeo und Julia / Dornröschen / Ruslan und Ludmilla Tschaikowsky, Glinka; The New Philharmonic Orchestra London, Laurence Siegel, Alfred Scholz 1
Sinfonia N. 6 Patetica, Romeo y Juliette, La Belle Durmiente: Vals - Auchan Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Sinfonia no. 1 "Sonhos de inverno" / Romeu e Julieta, abertura fantasia Pyotr I. Tchaikovsky; Orquestra Sinfônica do Estado de São Paulo, John Neschling 1
Sinfonia No. 4 Op. 36 / Romeo y Julieta Tchaikovsky; Claudio Abbado 1
Sinfonia No. 6 "Patetica" / Elegie Op. 48 Tchaikovsky; Antal Kalinov 1
Songs Balakirev, Rimsky-Korsakov, Cui, Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninov; Daniil Shtoda, Larissa Gergieva 1
String Quartets, Volume 2 Tchaikovsky; New Haydn Quartet, Budapest 1
Swan Lake Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Swan Lake (Complete Ballet) Tchaikovsky; London Symphony Orchestra, Michael Tilson Thomas 1
Swan Lake / Sleeping Beauty Tchaikovsky; Philharmonia Cassovia, Andrew Mogrelia 1
Swan Lake, op. 20 / The Nutcracker, op. 71a Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Radio Bratislava Symphony Orchestra, Kazushi Ono 1
Swan Lake: Suite, op. 20 (disc 1) Пётр Ильич Чайковский; London Symphony Orchestra, André Previn 1
Symphonie n°6 en si mineur op. 74 "Pathétique" (Orchestre philharmonique des Festivals. Dir. : Vladimir Petroschoff) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Symphonie No. 4 f-moll op. 36 (Gennadij Roshdestwenskij) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Symphonie No. 5 (Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra feat. conductor: Evgeny Mravinsky) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Symphonie No. 5 (Radio Symphonieorchster Ljubljana feat. cond: Anton Nanut) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Symphonie Nr. 4 Peter Tschaikowsky; Leningrader Philharmonie & Евгений Александрович МравинскийJewgenij Mrawinskij 1
Symphonie Nr. 4 F-moll op. 36 (Gewandhausorchester Leipzig feat. conductor; Kurt Mazur) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
Symphonie Nr. 5 e-moll,Op. 64 Tchaikovsky; Gewandhausorchester Leipzig, Kurt Masur 1
Symphonies nos. 1, 2 & 3 / Francesca da Rimini Tchaikovsky; Moscow State Radio and TV Symphony Orchestra, Геннадий Николаевич Рождественский 1
Symphony no. 1 "Winter Dreams" / Francesca da Rimini Tchaikovsky; Gewandhausorchester Leipzig, Kurt Masur 1

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