Пётр Ильич Чайковский (Russian romantic composer)

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (/ˈpjɔːtər ˈlj ˈkɒfski/; Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский; tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893), often anglicized as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky /ˈptər .../, was a Russian composer of the late-Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884 by Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension.

Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant. There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time and no system of public music education. When an opportunity for such an education arose, he entered the nascent Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1865. The formal Western-oriented teaching he received there set him apart from composers of the contemporary nationalist movement embodied by the Russian composers of The Five, with whom his professional relationship was mixed. Tchaikovsky's training set him on a path to reconcile what he had learned with the native musical practices to which he had been exposed from childhood. From this reconciliation, he forged a personal but unmistakably Russian style—a task that did not prove easy. The principles that governed melody, harmony and other fundamentals of Russian music ran completely counter to those that governed Western European music; this seemed to defeat the potential for using Russian music in large-scale Western composition or from forming a composite style, and it caused personal antipathies that dented Tchaikovsky's self-confidence. Russian culture exhibited a split personality, with its native and adopted elements having drifted apart increasingly since the time of Peter the Great. This resulted in uncertainty among the intelligentsia about the country's national identity—an ambiguity mirrored in Tchaikovsky's career.

Despite his many popular successes, Tchaikovsky's life was punctuated by personal crises and depression. Contributory factors included his early separation from his mother for boarding school followed by his mother's early death, the death of his close friend and colleague Nikolai Rubinstein, and the collapse of the one enduring relationship of his adult life, which was his 13-year association with the wealthy widow Nadezhda von Meck. His same-sex orientation, which he kept private, has traditionally also been considered a major factor, though some musicologists now downplay its importance. Tchaikovsky's sudden death at the age of 53 is generally ascribed to cholera; there is an ongoing debate as to whether cholera was indeed the cause of death, or if it was accidental or self-inflicted.

While his music has remained popular among audiences, critical opinions were initially mixed. Some Russians did not feel it was sufficiently representative of native musical values and expressed suspicion that Europeans accepted the music for its Western elements. In an apparent reinforcement of the latter claim, some Europeans lauded Tchaikovsky for offering music more substantive than base exoticism, and said he transcended stereotypes of Russian classical music. Others dismissed Tchaikovsky's music as "lacking in elevated thought," according to longtime New York Times music critic Harold C. Schonberg, and derided its formal workings as deficient because they did not stringently follow Western principles.

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Year Title Artist RatingReleases
1996 Piano Concertos 2 & 3 (Philharmonia Orchestra) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1996 Violin Concertos Tchaikovsky, Sibelius; Vadim Repin, London Symphony Orchestra, Emmanuel Krivine 5 1
1996 Piano Concerto no. 1 / The Nutcracker Suite (for two pianos) Tchaikovsky; Martha Argerich, Berliner Philharmoniker, Claudio Abbado, Nicolas Economou 1
1996 Swan Lake Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Boston Symphony Orchestra, Seiji Ozawa 3
1996 Piano Concertos nos. 1 & 3 / Andante and Finale, op. 79 Tchaikovsky; Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, Antoni Wit, Bernd Glemser 1
1996 Serenade for Strings / "Romeo and Juliet" Fantasy-Overture / "1812" Overture Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1996 Symphony no. 5 / Capriccio Italien Tchaikovsky; USSR Symphony Orchestra, Evgeny Svetlanov 1
1996 Ballett-Suiten (Rostropovich - Berliner Philharmoniker) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 5 1
1996 Piano Concerto no. 2, op. 44 / Concert Fantasy, op. 56 Tchaikovsky; Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, Antoni Wit, Bernd Glemser 1
1996 Complete Suites for Orchestra (New Philharmonia Orchestra feat. conductor: Antal Dorati) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1996 Eugene Onegin (Novosibirsk State Opera Orchestra, Choir and Soloists feat. conductor: Samuel Friedmann) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1996 O quebra-nozes, suite / O lago dos cisnes, suite Piotr I. Chaikovski; London Festival Orchestra, Alberto Lizzio 1
1996 Suite no. 2 / The Tempest Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi 1
1996 Suite no. 3 / Francesca da Rimini Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi 1
1996 Symphony No. 1 "Winter Daydreams" Tchaikovsky; Russian National Orchestra, Мikhail Pletnev 1
1996 Symphony No. 2 / Symphony No. 4 Tchaikovsky; Russian National Orchestra, Mikhail Pletnev 1
1996 Symphony No. 3 "Polish" Tchaikovsky; Russian National Orchestra, Мikhail Pletnev 1
1996 Symphony No. 4 / Violin Concerto in D major (Royal Philharmonic Orchestra feat. conductor: Artur Rodzinski) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1996 Symphony No. 5 Tchaikovsky; Russian National Orchestra, Мikhail Pletnev 1
1996 Symphony No. 5 / Overture 1812 (Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Daniel Barenboim) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1996 Symphony No. 5 / Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture (Mineria Symphony Orchestra conducted by Herrera de la Fuente) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 2
1996 Symphony №1 “Winter Dreams” • Symphony №2 “Little Russian” Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1996 Tchaikovsky's Greatest Hits Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1996 The 3 Great Symphonies Tchaikovsky; Philharmonia Orchestra, Vladimir Ashkenazy 1
1997 Piano Sonatas Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky; Leslie Howard 2
1997 Щелкунчик (The Nutcracker) Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Оркестр Большого Театра, Геннадий Николаевич Рождественский 3
1997 Serenades for Strings Tchaikovsky, Dvořák; Vienna Chamber Orchestra, Philippe Entremont, Capella Istropolitana, Jaroslav Krček 1
1997 Romantic - Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No. 1 / "Romeo and Juliet" Fantasy-Overture Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1997 Liturgy of St John Chrysostom Pyotr Tchaikovsky; Corydon Singers, Matthew Best 2
1997 David Oistrakh Edition, Volume 1: Peter Tchaikovsky, Jean Sibelius Peter Tchaikovsky, Jean Sibelius; David Oistrakh 2
1997 Der Nussknacker (orchestra: Brandenburger Symphoniker, conductor: Heiko Matthias Förster) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1997 Piano Concertos 1-3 / Concert Fantasia Tchaikovsky; New York Philharmonic, Kurt Masur, Elisabeth Leonskaja 1
1997 Romeo and Juliet Overture / Symphony no. 6 "Pathetique" Tchaikovsky 1
1997 Suite no. 1 / The Storm / Fate Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi 1
1997 Suite No. 4 "Mozartiana" / The Seasons Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi 1
1997 Symphonie No. 5 Tchaikovsky; Münchner Philharmoniker, Sergiu Celibidache 1
1997 Symphonies Nos. 4, 5 & 6 "Pathétique" Tchaikovsky; Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, Kurt Masur 1
1997 Symphony No. 4 / Romeo and Juliet Tchaikovsky; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Daniel Barenboim 1
1997 Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No. 1 / Nutcracker (excerpts) Tchaikovsky; Gilels, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Reiner 2
1998 1812 Overture / Serenade for Strings / Voyevoda / Romeo and Juliet Tchaikovsky; St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, Vladimir Ashkenazy 1
1998 String Quartets no. 1 & no. 3 Tchaikovsky; The Kontra Quartet 1
1998 Symphony no. 6 "Pathétique" / Piano Concerto no. 1 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; NBC Symphony Orchestra, Arturo Toscanini, Vladimir Horowitz 1
1998 Tchaikovsky: Sleeping Beauty / Sibelius: The Swan of Tuonela / Liszt: Les Préludes Пётр Ильич Чайковский, Franz Liszt, Jean Sibelius; Leopold Stokowski Symphony Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski 1
1998 Swan Lake (Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, feat. conductor: Antal Dorati) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1998 The Nutcracker Tchaikovsky; Kirov Orchestra, Valery Gergiev 2
1998 1812 Overture / Symphony No. 4 (London Philharmonic Orchestra feat. conductor: Paavo Berglund) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1998 Elgar: Cello Concerto / Bloch: Schelomo / Kabalevsky: Cello Concerto no. 2 / Tchaikovsky: Rococo Variations / R. Strauss: Don Quixote Elgar, Bloch, Kabalevsky, Tchaikovsky, R. Strauss; Steven Isserlis, London Symphony Orchestra, Richard Hickox, London Philharmonic, Andrew Litton, Chamber Orchestra of Europe, John Eliot Gardiner, Minnesota Orchestra, Edo de Waart 1
1998 Mazeppa (Kirov Opera & Orchestra, feat. conductor Valery Gergiev, singers Putilin, Alexashkin, Diadkova) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1998 Symphony no. 4 Tchaikovsky; Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Herbert von Karajan 1
1998 Symphony No. 4 / Capriccio Italien (Berliner Philharmoniker feat. conductor: Herbert von Karajan) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1

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