Пётр Ильич Чайковский (Russian romantic composer)

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (/ˈpjɔːtər iːˈljiːtʃ tʃaɪˈkɒfski/; Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский; tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 7 May 1840 – 6 November 1893), often anglicised as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky /ˈpiːtər .../, was a Russian composer whose works included symphonies, concertos, operas, ballets, chamber music, and a choral setting of the Russian Orthodox Divine Liturgy. Some of these are among the most popular theatrical music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, which he bolstered with appearances as a guest conductor later in his career in Europe and the United States. One of these appearances was at the inaugural concert of Carnegie Hall in New York City in 1891. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884 by Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension in the late 1880s.

Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant. There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time, and no system of public music education. When an opportunity for such an education arose, he entered the nascent Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1865. The formal Western-oriented teaching he received there set him apart from composers of the contemporary nationalist movement embodied by the Russian composers of The Five, with whom his professional relationship was mixed. Tchaikovsky's training set him on a path to reconcile what he had learned with the native musical practices to which he had been exposed from childhood. From this reconciliation, he forged a personal but unmistakably Russian style—a task that did not prove easy. The principles that governed melody, harmony and other fundamentals of Russian music ran completely counter to those that governed Western European music; this seemed to defeat the potential for using Russian music in large-scale Western composition or from forming a composite style, and it caused personal antipathies that dented Tchaikovsky's self-confidence. Russian culture exhibited a split personality, with its native and adopted elements having drifted apart increasingly since the time of Peter the Great, and this resulted in uncertainty among the intelligentsia of the country's national identity.

Despite his many popular successes, Tchaikovsky's life was punctuated by personal crises and depression. Contributory factors included his leaving his mother for boarding school, his mother's early death, as well as that of his close friend and colleague Nikolai Rubinstein, and the collapse of the one enduring relationship of his adult life, his 13-year association with the wealthy widow Nadezhda von Meck. His homosexuality, which he kept private, has traditionally also been considered a major factor, though some musicologists now downplay its importance. His sudden death at the age of 53 is generally ascribed to cholera; there is an ongoing debate as to whether it was accidental or self-inflicted.

While his music has remained popular among audiences, critical opinions were initially mixed. Some Russians did not feel it was sufficiently representative of native musical values and were suspicious that Europeans accepted it for its Western elements. In apparent reinforcement of the latter claim, some Europeans lauded Tchaikovsky for offering music more substantive than base exoticism, and thus transcending stereotypes of Russian classical music. Tchaikovsky's music was dismissed as "lacking in elevated thought," according to longtime New York Times music critic Harold C. Schonberg, and its formal workings were derided as deficient for not following Western principles stringently.

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Discography

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Album

Year Title Artist Rating Releases
1998 Swan Lake (Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, feat. conductor: Antal Dorati) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1998 The Nutcracker Tchaikovsky; Kirov Orchestra, Valery Gergiev 1
1998 1812 Overture / Symphony No. 4 (London Philharmonic Orchestra feat. conductor: Paavo Berglund) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1998 Elgar: Cello Concerto / Bloch: Schelomo / Kabalevsky: Cello Concerto no. 2 / Tchaikovsky: Rococo Variations / R. Strauss: Don Quixote Elgar, Bloch, Kabalevsky, Tchaikovsky, R. Strauss; Steven Isserlis, London Symphony Orchestra, Richard Hickox, London Philharmonic, Andrew Litton, Chamber Orchestra of Europe, John Eliot Gardiner, Minnesota Orchestra, Edo de Waart 1
1998 Mazeppa (Kirov Opera & Orchestra, feat. conductor Valery Gergiev, singers Putilin, Alexashkin, Diadkova) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1998 Symphony No. 4 / Capriccio Italien (Berliner Philharmoniker feat. conductor: Herbert von Karajan) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1998 Symphony No. 4 in F Minor, Op. 36 (Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra feat. conductor: Herbert von Karajan) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1998 Symphony No. 5, Capriccio Italien (Georgian Simi Festival Orchestra feat. conductor: Nodar Tsatishvili) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1998 Tchaikovsky (The London Symphony Orchestra) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1999 Strauss: Metamorphosen / Tchaikovsky: Souvenir de Florence Strauss, Tchaikovsky; Norwegian Chamber Orchestra, Iona Brown 1
1999 Karajan-Edition: 100 Meisterwerke Пётр Ильич Чайковский 2
1999 The Seasons Tchaikovsky; Vladimir Ashkenazy 5 2
1999 Symphony No. 6 / Marche slave (Russian State Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Valery Polyansky) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1999 Klavierkonzerte Nr. 2 & 3 Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1999 "1812" Overture / Capriccio Italien / Romeo & Juliet / Francesca Da Rimini (Chicago Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Daniel Barenboim) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1999 Deutsche Grammophon Collection: Symphony no. 4 / Symphony no. 2 "Ucranian" Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Wiener Philharmoniker, New Philharmonia Orchestra, Claudio Abbado 1
1999 Khachaturian: Masquerade Suite / Kabalevsky: The Comedians / Tchaikovsky: Capriccio Italien / Rimsky-Korsakov: Capriccio Espagnol Khachaturian, Kabalevsky, Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov; Kiril Kondrashin, RCA Victor Symphony Orchestra 1
1999 Piano Music Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Juliana Osinchuk 1
1999 Suites of Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker (Berliner Philharmoniker feat. conductor: Mstislav Rostropovich) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1999 Symphonie n° 4 / Roméo & Juliette Tchaikovski; Antal Doráti 1
1999 The 3 Ballets: Swan Lake / The Sleeping Beauty / The Nutcracker Tchaikovsky; National Philharmonic Orchestra, Richard Bonynge 2
1999 World's Greatest Masterpieces: Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 The Sleeping Beauty (Russian National Orchestra feat. conductor: Mikhail Pletnev) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 Sinfonia in si minore n. 6, op. 74 "Patetica" / Romeo e Giulietta Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Kirov Orchestra, Valery Gergiev 1
2000 “1812” Overture / Romeo and Juliet / Marche slave / The Tempest Tchaikovsky; Berliner Philharmoniker, Claudio Abbado 1
2000 Symphony No. 6 "Pathétique" / Marche Slave / 6 Piano Pieces, Op. 21 Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 The Sleeping Beauty / The Seasons, Op. 37b Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 Symphony no. 6 "Pathétique" / Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture Tchaikovsky; Valery Gergiev, Kirov Orchestra 1
2000 Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1 / Debussy: Images (Boston Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor Michael Tilson Thomas) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op. 41 (Kiev Chamber Choir feat. conductor: Mykola Hobdych) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 BBC Music, Volume 9, Number 4: Sleeping Beauty (BBC Philharmonic feat. conductor: Vassily Sinaisky) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 "1812" Overture / Symphony No. 5 (Radio Symphony Orchestra Ljubljana feat. conductor: Anton Nanut) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 Der Nußknacker (Toronto Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Andrew Davis) / Schwanensee (Philadelphia Orchestra feat. conductor: Eugene Ormandy) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 "From the New World" / Tchaikovsky: Francesca da Rimini) Dvořák, Tchaikovsky; Houston Symphony, Christoph Eschenbach 1
2000 Piano Concerto No. 1 / Fantasy Overture in B minor "Romeo and Juliet" (Orchestra della Svizzera Italiana) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 Piano Concerto No. 1 / Overture "1812" Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2000 Symphonie No. 4 en fa mineur / Suite de Casse-Noisette (Anima Eterna feat. conductor: Jos van Immerseel) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2001 The Nutcracker (Complete Ballet) / Suites for Orchestra 3 & 4 Tchaikovsky; Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, New Philharmonia Orchestra, Antal Doráti 1
2001 1812 / Capriccio Italien / Marche Slave / Festival Coronation March / Polonaise / Cossack Dance Tchaikovsky; Cincinnati Pops Orchestra, Kiev Symphony Chorus, Children's Choir of Greater Cincinnati, Erich Kunzel 2
2001 Piano Trios Ravel, Tchaikovsky; Arthur Rubinstein, Jascha Heifetz, Gregor Piatigorsky 1
2001 Symphonies 4-6 / Hamlet - Fantasy Overture Tchaikovsky; Wiener Philharmoniker, Lorin Maazel 1
2001 Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No. 1 / Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No. 2 Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff; Alexei Sultanov, London Symphony Orchestra, Maxim Shostakovich 1
2001 Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring / Tchaikovsky: Symphony no. 4 Stravinsky, Tchaikovsky; The Cleveland Orchestra, Lorin Maazel 1
2001 Symphony No.5 / Variations on a Rococo Theme for Cello and Orchestra Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Yo‐Yo Ma, Claudio Abbado, Lorin Maazel 1
2001 The Nutcracker (USSR State Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Evgeny Svetlanov) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2001 The Nutcracker Ballet Suite Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2001 The Sleeping Beauty Пётр Ильич Чайковский 5 1
2002 Romances (feat. bass: Suren Shahi-Djanyan, piano: Claude Lavoix) Piotr Ilyitch Tchaikovski; Suren Shahi-Djanyan, Claude Lavoix 1
2002 Symphony No. 4 / 1812 Overture / Marche Slave (The Philadelphia Orchestra feat. conductor: Eugene Ormandy) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
2002 Complete Works for Violin and Piano (feat. violin: Oleg Kagan, piano: Vasily Lobanov) Пётр Ильич Чайковский 2

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