Пётр Ильич Чайковский (Russian romantic composer)

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (/ˈpjtər ɪˈljɪ ˈkɒfski/; Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский; tr. Pëtr Il'ič Čajkovskij; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893), often anglicized as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, was a Russian composer of the late-Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884, by Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension.

Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant. There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time and no system of public music education. When an opportunity for such an education arose, he entered the nascent Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1865. The formal Western-oriented teaching he received there set him apart from composers of the contemporary nationalist movement embodied by the Russian composers of The Five, with whom his professional relationship was mixed. Tchaikovsky's training set him on a path to reconcile what he had learned with the native musical practices to which he had been exposed from childhood. From this reconciliation, he forged a personal but unmistakably Russian style—a task that did not prove easy. The principles that governed melody, harmony and other fundamentals of Russian music ran completely counter to those that governed Western European music; this seemed to defeat the potential for using Russian music in large-scale Western composition or for forming a composite style, and it caused personal antipathies that dented Tchaikovsky's self-confidence. Russian culture exhibited a split personality, with its native and adopted elements having drifted apart increasingly since the time of Peter the Great. This resulted in uncertainty among the intelligentsia about the country's national identity—an ambiguity mirrored in Tchaikovsky's career.

Despite his many popular successes, Tchaikovsky's life was punctuated by personal crises and depression. Contributory factors included his early separation from his mother for boarding school followed by his mother's early death, the death of his close friend and colleague Nikolai Rubinstein, and the collapse of the one enduring relationship of his adult life, which was his 13-year association with the wealthy widow Nadezhda von Meck. His homosexuality, which he kept private, has traditionally also been considered a major factor, though some musicologists now downplay its importance. Tchaikovsky's sudden death at the age of 53 is generally ascribed to cholera; there is an ongoing debate as to whether cholera was indeed the cause of death, or if it was accidental or self-inflicted.

While his music has remained popular among audiences, critical opinions were initially mixed. Some Russians did not feel it was sufficiently representative of native musical values and expressed suspicion that Europeans accepted the music for its Western elements. In an apparent reinforcement of the latter claim, some Europeans lauded Tchaikovsky for offering music more substantive than base exoticism, and said he transcended stereotypes of Russian classical music. Others dismissed Tchaikovsky's music as "lacking in elevated thought," according to longtime New York Times music critic Harold C. Schonberg, and derided its formal workings as deficient because they did not stringently follow Western principles.

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Year Title Artist RatingReleases
1955 Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto / Wieniawski: Études‐Caprices / Sarasate: Navarra Tchaikovsky, Wieniawski, Sarasate; David Oistrakh 2
1957 The Nutcracker: Suites 1 and 2 Tchaikovsky; Paris Conservatoire Orchestra, Fistoulari 1
1958 Swan Lake - Suite From the Ballet Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1958 Swan Lake Ballet Suite Tchaikovsky; Sinfonia of London, John Hollingsworth 1
1963 Bernstein Conducts Tchaikovsky Tchaikovsky; New York Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein 1
1963 Klavierkonzert Nr. 1 Tschaikowsky; Svjatoslav Richter, Wiener Symphoniker, Herbert von Karajan 2
1966 1812 / Caprice Italien / Polonaise from 'Eugene Onegin' Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra, Constantin Silvestri, Band of H.M. Royal Marines 1
1966 Konzert für Violine und Orchester D-dur op. 35 Пётр Ильич Чайковский; David Oistrach 1
1966 Symphonies nos. 1-3 including "Little Russian" / Francesca Da Rimini Tchaikovsky; London Symphony Orchestra, Igor Markevitch 2
1966 Tschaikowsky-Wettbewerb Moskau 1966 Tschaikowsky; Grigorij Sokolow, Victor Tretjakow 1
1967 Nutcracker & Sleeping Beauty Suites Tchaikovsky; Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Sir Adrian Boult 1
1968 Semprini Plays Golden Melodies of Tchaikovsky Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Semprini, The New Abbey Light Symphony Orchestra, Vilém Tauský 1
1968 Stravinsky: Firebird Suite / Tchaikovsky: Marche Slave / Mussorgsky: Night on the Bare Mountain Stravinsky, Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky; London Symphony Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski 1
1969 Dvořák: Cellokonzert / Tschaikowsky: Rokoko‐Variationen Dvořák, Tschaikowsky; Mstislav Rostropovich, Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 2
1970 Piano Concerto no. 1 in B-flat minor op. 23 / Litolff: Scherzo from Concerto Symphonique no. 4 op. 102 Tchaikovsky; Peter Katin, London Philharmonic Orchestra, John Pritchard 1
1970 Pictures at an Exhibition / Romeo and Juliet Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky; London Philharmonic Orchestra, John Pritchard 1
1970 Violin Concertos Tchaikovsky, Sibelius; Kyung-Wha Chung, London Symphony Orchestra, André Previn 3
1971 The Music Lovers - Original Motion Picture Soundtrack Tchaikovsky, André Previn, London Symphony Orchestra 1
1972 Klavierkonzert Nr. 2 G-dur Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Эмиль Григорьевич Гилельс 1
1972 Symphonie No.6 "Pathétique" Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 2
1972 The Nutcracker: Complete Ballet Tchaikovsky; London Symphony Orchestra, André Previn 4
1973 Tchaikovsky: 1812, Romeo And Juliet, Marche Slave Пётр Ильич Чайковский 1
1974 Cellokonzert / Rokoko Variationen Schumann, Tchaikowsky; Mstislav Rostropowitsch 1
1974 Symphony no. 6 Tchaikovsky; Leningrad Philharmonic, Yevgeny Mravinsky 2
1975 Symphony No. 5 Tchaikovsky; Concertgebou Orchestra, Amsterdam, Bernard Haitink 1
1975 Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 5 In E Minor Opus 64 Tchaikovsky; Pierre Monteux, Boston Symphony Orchestra 1
1976 Symphony No. 5 Пётр Ильич Чайковский; The Cleveland Orchestra, George Szell 1
1978 Mussorgsky: Bilder einer Ausstellung / Tschaikowsky: Capriccio italien / Bizet: Carmen Suite No. 1 / Weber: Aufforderung zum Tanz Mussorgsky / Tchaikovsky / Bizet / Weber 1
1978 Symphonies nos. 4, 5 & 6 “Pathétique” Tchaikovsky; Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra, Evgeny Mravinsky 7
1979 1812 / Capriccio Italien / Cossack Dance Tchaikovsky; Cincinnati Pops Orchestra, Erich Kunzel 3
1981 Klavierkonzert Nr. 1 Tschaikowsky; Rubinstein 1
1981 Rautavaara: Cantus Arcticus / Tchaikovsky: Symphony no. 2 Einojuhani Rautavaara, Peter Tchaikovsky; The Klemetti Institute Symphony Orchestra, Pertti Pekkanen 1
1981 Swan Lake Tchaikovsky; London Symphony Orchestra, Pierre Monteux 2
1981 Symphony No. 5 in E minor Peter Tschaikowsky; London Symphony Orchestra, Karl Böhm 1
1982 String Serenades Пётр Ильич Чайковский, Antonín Dvořák; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 1
1982 Violin Concerto / Sérénade mélancolique Tschaikowsky; Gidon Kremer, Berliner Philharmoniker, Lorin Maazel 1
1982 Concertos pour violin Tchaïkovsky, Sibelius; Pierre Amoyal, Philharmonia Orchestra, Charles Dutoit 1
1982 Marche Slav and Other Russian Favorites Tchaikovsky; Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra, Leonard Slatkin 1
1982 Nutcracker Suite / Serenade for Strings Tchaikovsky; Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Neville Marriner 2
1982 Ouverture 1812 / Capriccio Italien / Marche Slave Tschaikowsky; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Daniel Barenboim 1
1982 Ravel: Boléro / Liszt: Les Préludes / Tchaikovsky: Ouverture Solonelle "1812" Ravel, Liszt, Tchaikovsky; The Philadelphia Orchestra, Riccardo Muti 3
1982 Smetana: Die Moldau / Dvorak: Slawische Tänze / Tchaikovsky: Dornröschen / Tchaikovsky: Romeo und Julia Bedřich Smetana, Antonín Dvořák, Пётр Ильич Чайковский; London Festival Orchestra, George Ralph Warren 1
1982 Symphony no. 2 "Little Russian" Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; London Symphony Orchestra, Geoffrey Simon 1
1982 Symphony no. 5 Tchaikovsky; The Cleveland Orchestra, Lorin Maazel 1
1982 Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture / Tchaikovsky: Marche Slave / Beethoven: Wellington's Victory Tchaikovsky, Beethoven; Vienna Philharmonic, Chorus of the Vienna State Opera, Lorin Maazel 1
1982 Violin Concertos Tchaikovsky, Mendelssohn; Orchestre symphonique de Montréal, Charles Dutoit, Kyung Wha Chung 3
1983 Symphony no. Four Tchaikovsky; The Cleveland Orchestra, Lorin Maazel 1
1983 "The Nutcracker" Suite / Symphonic Dances, op. 45 (version for 2 pianos) Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninov; Martha Argerich, Nicolas Economou 2
1983 Music for Cello & Orchestra Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; English Chamber Orchestra, Geoffrey Simon, Raphael Wallfisch 1
1983 Suites: Swan Lake / The Nutcracker Tchaikovsky; Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Zubin Mehta 1
1983 Symphony no. 6 in D minor “Pathétique” Tchaikovsky; The Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy 1
1984 Symphony no. 6 "Pathétique" Tchaikovsky; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, James Levine 1
1984 Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No. 1 / Prokofiev: Piano Concerto No. 3 Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev; Martha Argerich 1
1984 Klavierkonzerte Nr. 1+3 Peter Tschaikowski; Wiener Symphoniker, Gennadi Roshdestwenski, Viktoria Postnikowa 2
1984 Piano Concerto no. 1 / Piano Concerto no. 3 Tchaikovsky; Philip Fowke, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Wilfried Boettcher 1
1984 Symphony 5 in E minor, op. 64 Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra, Mariss Jansons 1
1985 Violin Concerto / Sérénade mélancolique Tchaikovsky; Itzhak Perlman, The Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy 2
1985 "1812" / Marche Slave / Francesca da Rimini / Polonaise: "Eugene Onegin" Tchaikovsky; Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Seiji Ozawa 1
1985 1812 Overture / Marche Slave / Romeo and Juliet Overture Tchaikovsky; New York Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein 1
1985 Casse-noisette Tchaikovsky; Philharmonia Orchestra, Michael Tilson Thomas 1
1985 Hamlet / Marche slave / Capriccio italien / Ouverture 1812 Tchaikovsky; Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Leonard Bernstein 1
1985 Stravinsky: Le Baiser de la fée / Tchaikovsky: Bluebird. Pas de deux Igor Stravinsky, Peter Tchaikovsky; The Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi 1
1985 Suites 1 & 2 Tchaikovsky; The USSR Symphony Orchestra, Svetlanov 2
1985 Suites 3 & 4 Tchaikovsky; The USSR Symphony Orchestra, Svetlanov 2
1985 Symphonie no. 4 Tschaikowsky; Wiener Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 2
1985 Symphonie no. 5 Tschaikowsky; Wiener Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 2
1985 Symphonie no. 6 "Pathétique" (1984 recordings) Tschaikowsky; Wiener Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 3
1985 Symphony 1 in G minor, op. 13 "Winter Daydreams" Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra, Mariss Jansons 1
1985 Symphony 4 in F minor, op. 36 Tchaikovsky; Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra, Mariss Jansons 1
1985 Symphony no. 5 Tchaikovsky; Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, André Previn 2
1985 The Nutcracker Tchaikovsky; Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra, Leonard Slatkin 1
1986 Klavierkonzert no. 1 Tschaikowsky; Ivo Pogorelich, London Symphony Orchestra, Claudio Abbado 1
1986 Symphonie no. 1 "Winter-Träume" Tschaikowsky; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 1
1986 Nutcracker Tchaikovsky; London Symphony Orchestra, Sir Charles Mackerras 1
1986 1812 / Capriccio italien / Marche slave / "The Nutcracker" Tchaikovsky; Orchestre symphonique de Montréal, Charles Dutoit 4
1986 Concerto no. 1 in B-flat minor, op. 23 Tchaikovsky; London Symphony Orchestra, Leonard Slatkin, Barry Douglas 2
1986 Klaviertrio Op. 50 Peter Tschaikowsky; Haydn-Trio, Wien 1
1986 Nutcracker Tchaikovsky; Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Ambrosian Singers, André Previn 1
1986 Rachmaninov: The Bells (Choral Symphony) / Vocalise / Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet Duo / Festival Coronation March Sergey Rachmaninov, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Scottish National Orchestra, SNO Chorus, Neeme Järvi, Suzanne Murphy, Keith Lewis, David Wilson-Johnson 1
1986 Symphonie Nr. 2 C-Moll Op. 17 »Kleinrussische« / Ouverture Solennelle »1812« Op. 49 Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 1
1986 Symphony 3 in D major, op. 29 Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra, Mariss Jansons 1
1986 Symphony 6 in B minor, op. 74 "Pathétique" Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky; Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra, Mariss Jansons 2
1986 Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto no. 1 / Dohnanyi: Variations on a Nursery Song, op. 25 Tchaikovsky, Dohnányi; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Sir Georg Solti, András Schiff 1
1986 Tchaikovsky: Rococo Variations / Offenbach & Saint-Saens: Cello Concertos Tchaikovsky, Offenbach, Saint‐Saëns; Ofra Harnoy 1
1986 Tchaikovsky: Symphony no. 2 "Little Russian" / Rimsky-Korsakov: Symphony no. 2 "Antar" Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov; Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, Lorin Maazel 1
1986 The Nutcracker: Highlights from the Complete Ballet Tchaikovsky; Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, André Previn 1
1986 Violin Concertos Tchaikovsky, Mendelssohn; Nathan Milstein, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Claudio Abbado 2
1986 Violin Concertos Tchaikovsky, Sibelius; Viktoria Mullova, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Seiji Ozawa 3
1986 Waltzes Tchaikovsky; Houston Symphony, Sergiu Comissiona 1
1987 Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto no. 1 / Grieg: Piano Concerto in A minor Tchaikovsky, Grieg; Bamberger Symphoniker, Roland Pöntinen, Leif Segerstam 1
1987 Symphony no. 6 "Pathétique" Tchaikovsky; New York Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein 2
1987 Tschaikowsky: Klavierkonzert Nr. 1 / Rachmaninov: 5 Préludes Peter Tschaikowsky, Sergej Rachmaninov; Wiener Symphoniker, Herbert von Karajan, Svjatoslav Richter 1
1987 Eugen Onegin Peter Tschaikowsky; Thomas Allen, Mirella Freni, Anne Sofie von Otter, Neil Shicoff, Paata Burchuladze, Rundfunkchor Leipzig, Staatskapelle Dresden, James Levine 2
1987 Ouverture Solennelle "1812" / Streicherserenade Peter Tschaikowsky; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 1
1987 1812 Tchaikovsky; Detroit Symphony Orchestra, National Symphony Orchestra, Antal Doráti 1
1987 1812 / Romeo & Juliet / The Nutcracker Suite Tchaikovsky; Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Sir Georg Solti 1
1987 Ballet Suites Пётр Ильич Чайковский; Wiener Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 5
1987 David Oistrakh Edition, Volume 1: Peter Tchaikovsky, Jean Sibelius Peter Tchaikovsky, Jean Sibelius; David Oistrakh 3
1987 Dvorak: Concerto pour violoncelle / Tchaikovski: Variations Rococo Dvorak, Tchaikovski; Mstislav Rostropovitch, Seiji Ozawa, Boston Symphony Orchestra 1
1987 Eugene Onegin Tchaikovsky; Weikl, Kubiak, Burrows, Hamari, Ghiaurov, Sénéchal, John Alldis Choir, Orchestra of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, Sir Georg Solti 1

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