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Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg (German: [ˈaːʁnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛʁk]; 13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was a Jewish Austrian composer, music theorist, and painter. He was associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. By 1938, with the rise of the Nazi Party, Schoenberg's works were labeled degenerate music, because he was Jewish (Anon. 1997–2013). He moved to the United States in 1934.

Schoenberg's approach, both in terms of harmony and development, has been one of the most influential of 20th-century musical thought. Many European and American composers from at least three generations have consciously extended his thinking, whereas others have passionately reacted against it.

Schoenberg was known early in his career for simultaneously extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic styles of Brahms and Wagner. Later, his name would come to personify innovations in atonality (although Schoenberg himself detested that term) that would become the most polemical feature of 20th-century art music. In the 1920s, Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone technique, an influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale. He also coined the term developing variation and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motifs without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea.

Schoenberg was also an influential teacher of composition; his students included Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Hanns Eisler, Egon Wellesz, and later John Cage, Lou Harrison, Earl Kim, Roberto Gerhard, Leon Kirchner, and other prominent musicians. Many of Schoenberg's practices, including the formalization of compositional method and his habit of openly inviting audiences to think analytically, are echoed in avant-garde musical thought throughout the 20th century. His often polemical views of music history and aesthetics were crucial to many significant 20th-century musicologists and critics, including Theodor W. Adorno, Charles Rosen and Carl Dahlhaus, as well as the pianists Artur Schnabel, Rudolf Serkin, Eduard Steuermann and Glenn Gould.

Schoenberg's archival legacy is collected at the Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna.

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Discography

Album

Year Title Artist RatingReleases
1971 Schoenberg: Pierrot Lunaire / Webern: Zwei Lieder, op. 8 / Fünf Canon, op. 16 / Boulez: Improvisation sur Mallarmé Arnold Schönberg, Anton Webern, Pierre Boulez; Erika Sziklay, Orchestre de Chambre de Budapest, András Mihály 2
1974 Moses und Aron (Chor und Sinfonieorchester des Österreichischen Rundfunks, feat. conductor: Michael Gielen, singers: Reich, Devos, Csapo, Obrowsky) Arnold Schönberg 1
1974 Pélleas et Mélisande Arnold Schönberg; Orchestre Philharmonique De Berlin, Herbert von Karajan 2
1979 15 Poems from Das Buch der hängenden Gärten / Eight Songs, op. 6 Arnold Schönberg; Erika Sziklay, Jenő Jandó 1
1985 Moses und Aron (Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Chicago Symphony Chorus feat. conductor Sir Georg Solti) Arnold Schönberg 7
1985 Verklärte Nacht / Variationen für Orchester Arnold Schoenberg; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 1
1986 Streichtrios der Neuen Wiener Schule Krenek, Schönberg, Webern; Wiener Streichtrio 1
1986 Verklärte Nacht / Streichtrio op. 45 / Phantasy für Violine und Klavier op. 47 Schönberg; Schönberg Ensemble 1
1986 Violin Concerto / Piano Concerto Arnold Schönberg 1
1987 Orchesterstücke Anton Webern, Arnold Schönberg, Alban Berg; Berliner Philharmoniker, James Levine 1
1987 Zemlinsky: Trio, op. 3 / Schönberg: Verklärte Nacht, op. 4 Zemlinsky, Schönberg; Clementi-Trio 1
1988 The Piano Music Arnold Schoenberg; Maurizio Pollini 1
1988 Schoenberg: Pelleas und Melisande / Webern: Passacaglia Schoenberg, Webern; Scottish National Orchestra, Matthias Bamert 1
1988 Verklärte Nacht / Streichtrio Arnold Schönberg; LaSalle Quartet, Donald McInnes, Jonathan Pegis 1
1988 Piano Music Arnold Schoenberg; Paul Jacobs 1
1989 La Nuit Transfigurée Arnold Schönberg; Le Quatuor Talich 3
1989 Schoenberg: 5 Orchesterstücke, op. 16 / Webern: 6 Orchesterstücke, op. 6 / Berg: Lulu-Suite Schoenberg, Webern, Berg; Arleen Augér, City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, Simon Rattle 2
1990 Pierrot Lunaire / Serenade / Die Eiserne Brigade (London Sinfonietta feat. conductor: David Atherton) Arnold Schönberg 1
1990 Mahler: Symphony no. 10 / Schoenberg: Verklarte Nacht Mahler, Schoenberg; RSO Berlin, Riccardo Chailly 1
1990 Gurrelieder Arnold Schönberg; Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin, Riccardo Chailly 1
1990 Kammersymphonie Op. 9 / Suite Op. 29 / Kaiserwalzer (Wiener Concert-Verein feat. conductor: Martin Sieghart) Arnold Schönberg 1
1990 Lieder Arnold Schönberg, Alban Berg; Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Aribert Reimann 1
1990 Metamorphosen / Verklarte Nacht / 5 Satze Strauss, Schoenberg, Webern; Academy of St Martin in the Fields, Neville Marriner 1
1990 Pelléas et Mélisande Schönberg, Sibelius, Fauré; Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Zubin Mehta 2
1990 Verklärte Nacht / Kammersymphonien Arnold Schönberg; Orpheus Chamber Orchestra 1
1991 Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique / Schönberg: Verklärte Nacht Berlioz, Schönberg; Wiener Symphoniker, Georges Prêtre, Israel Chamber Orchestra, Yoav Talmi 1
1991 Schoenberg: Pierrot Lunaire / Webern: Concerto, op. 24 Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern; Nash Ensemble, Simon Rattle, Jane Manning 2
1991 Schonberg Piano Works Complete Arnold Schönberg; Katharina Wolpe 1
1991 Schönberg: Pierrot Lunaire / Denissov: La Vie en rouge Schönberg, Denissov; Ensemble Kaléidocollage 1
1992 Orchesterstücke / Erwartung / Die glückliche Hand / Arnold Schönberg 1
1992 String Quartets Nos. 1-4 (Kolisch Quartet) Arnold Schönberg 1
1992 Verklärte Nacht / String Quartet no. 2 / Ode to Napoleon Schönberg; I Musici de Montréal, Yuli Turovsky, Nadia Pelle, Kevin McMillan, Marc-André Hamelin 1
1993 Verklärte Nacht, Op. 4 / Trio, Op. 45 Schoenberg; Juilliard String Quartet, Walter Trampler, Yo‐Yo Ma 1
1993 Pierrot Lunaire / Lied der Waldtaube / Erwartung Schoenberg; Pierre Boulez 1
1993 Pierrot Lunaire Arnold Schönberg; Marianne Pousseur, Ensemble Musique Oblique, Philippe Herreweghe 1
1993 Glückliche Hand / Variations / Verklärte Nacht (Pierre Boulez) Arnold Schönberg 1
1993 Schoenberg: Piano Concerto / Liszt: Piano Concertos Nos. 1 & 2 Schoenberg, Liszt; Philharmonia Orchestra, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Emanuel Ax 1
1993 Die Jakobsleiter, Kammersymphonie No. 1 (BBC Singers, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Ensemble InterContemporain feat. conductor: Pierre Boulez) Arnold Schönberg 1
1993 Erwartung; Brettl-Lieder (Metropolitan Opera Orchestra feat. soprano Jessye Norman) Arnold Schönberg 1
1993 Moses und Aron / Kammersymphonie Nr. 2 (BBC Symphony Orchestra, feat. conductor: Pierre Boulez, singers Reich, Cassilly, Palmer, Knight) Arnold Schönberg 1
1993 Suite / Verklärte Nacht / 3 Pieces (Members of the Ensemble InterContemperain feat. conductor: Pierre Boulez) Arnold Schönberg 1
1994 Moses und Aron (Rundfunk-Sinfonie-Orchester Leipzig, Rundfunkchor Leipzig feat. conductor Herbert Kegel) Arnold Schönberg 1
1994 The Glenn Gould Edition: Arnold Schoenberg: Pierrot Lunaire, Piano Concerto, etc. Arnold Schönberg 1
1995 Reflections Ravel, Decaux, Schönberg; Frederic Chiu 1
1995 Choral Works (Südfunk-Chor Stuttgart feat. conductor: Rupert Huber) Arnold Schönberg 1
1995 Five Orchestra Pieces / Survivor from Warsaw (London Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Robert Craft, narrator: Simon Callow) Arnold Schönberg 1
1995 Gurrelieder Arnold Schönberg; Wiener Philharmoniker, Konzertvereinigung Wiener Staatsopernchor, Arnold Schönberg Chor, Slowakischer Philharmonischer Chor Bratislava, Sharon Sweet, Siegfried Jerusalem, Marjana Lipovšek, Hartmut Welker, Philip Langridge, Barbara Sukowa, Claudio Abbado 1
1995 Verklärte Nacht / Pelléas et Mélisande Arnold Schoenberg; Philharmonia Orchestra, Giuseppe Sinopoli 1
1996 The Early Tonal Years (1894-1907) Arnold Schönberg 1
1996 Gurrelieder Arnold Schoenberg; Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden, Giuseppe Sinopoli 1
1996 Moses und Aron Arnold Schönberg; Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Pierre Boulez, David Pittman-Jennings, Chris Merritt 1
1996 Piano Concerto Schoenberg; Alfred Brendel, SWF Sinfonieorchester Baden-Baden, Michael Gielen 1
1996 Transfiguration Beethoven, Mahler, Schoenberg; Smithsonian Chamber Players, Kenneth Slowik 1
1996 Wolpe: The Man From Midian / Second Piece for Violin Alone / String Quartet / Schoenberg: Five Pieces for Orchestra Stefan Wolpe, Arnold Schoenberg; The Group for Contemporary Music 1
1997 Messiaen: Quatuor pour la fin du temps / Schönberg: Ein Stelldichein / Martinů: Oboe Quartet Messiaen, Schönberg, Martinů; Helén Jahren, Håkan Rosengren, Per Enoksson, Mats Rondin, Stefan Bojsten 1
1997 Sämtliche Werke für Klavier zu Zwei Händen Arnold Schönberg; Chen Pi-hsien 2
1997 Schoenberg in Hollywood Arnold Schoenberg; Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin, Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin, John Mauceri 1
1997 Sciarrino: Autoritratto nella notte / Ligeti: 6 Bagatellen / Doppelkonzert / Schoenberg: Kammersymphonie Nr. 1 Sciarrino, Ligeti, Schoenberg; Chamber Orchestra of Europe, Claudio Abbado 1
1997 Transfigured Night Schoenberg; Esa-Pekka Salonen; Stockholms Nya Kammarorkester 1
1998 Pelleas and Melisande, op. 5 / Variations, op. 31/ Violin Concerto, op. 36 / Piano Concerto, op. 42 Schoenberg; Amoyal, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Boulez 1
1998 Pierrot Lunaire Arnold Schönberg; Contempoartensemble, Mauro Ceccanti 1
1998 Pierrot Lunaire / Herzgewächse / Ode to Napoleon Schoenberg; Christine Schäfer, David Pittman-Jennings, Ensemble intercontemporain, Pierre Boulez 1
1998 Verklärte Nacht / Pelleas und Melisande Arnold Schoenberg; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 1
1999 Piano Music Schoenberg, Berg, Webern; Peter Hill 1
1999 Fünf Orchesterstücke op. 16 / Konzert für Violoncello und Orchester D-Dur / Moderner Psalm / Variationen für Orchester op. 31 Arnold Schönberg 2 1
1999 Pierrot Lunaire / Erwartung Arnold Schönberg 1
1999 Schoenberg, Berg, Webern: Orchestral Works Anton Webern; Arnold Schoenberg; Alban Berg; Berliner Philharmoniker; Herbert von Karajan 1
1999 String Quartets no. 2 & no. 4 Arnold Schönberg; Leipziger Streichquartett, Christiane Oelze 1
1999 Klavierstucke Arnold Schönberg, Franz Schubert; Thomas Larcher 1
2000 Verklärte Nacht / Chamber Symphony No. 2 / Accompaniment to a Cinematographic Scene Arnold Schönberg; Ulster Orchestra, Takuo Yuasa 1
2000 Schoenberg: Pelleas und Melisande / Wagner: Siegfried-Idyll Schoenberg, Wagner; Orchester der Deutschen Oper Berlin, Christian Thielemann 1
2000 Streichquartette I-IV (Arditti String Quartet) Arnold Schönberg 1
2001 Chamber Works Arnold Schönberg 1
2001 Arnold Schoenberg (25th Anniversary Edition) Arnold Schoenberg; Schoenberg Quartet 1
2001 Schoenberg: Piano Concerto / Piano Pieces, opp. 11 & 19 / Berg: Piano Sonata Schönberg, Webern, Berg; Cleveland Orchestra, Pierre Boulez, Mitsuko Uchida 1
2002 Chamber Symphonies no. 1 & no. 2 / Verklärte Nacht Schoenberg; Chamber Orchestra of Europe, Heinz Holliger 1
2002 Gurrelieder Schoenberg; Karita Mattila, Anne Sofie von Otter, Thomas Moser, Philip Langridge, Thomas Quasthoff, Rundfunkchor Berlin, MDR Rundfunkchor, Ernst Senff Chor, Berliner Philharmoniker, Simon Rattle 1
2003 Gurrelieder / Chamber Symphony No. 1 / Verklärte Nacht Schoenberg; Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin, Riccardo Chailly 1
2003 Verklärte Nacht op. 4 / Kammersymphonie op. 9 Arnold Schönberg; Das Bayerische Staatsorchester, Zubin Mehta 1
2004 Beethoven: Piano Sonata, Schumman: Fantasy, Schoenberg: Three Pieces Beethoven, Schumann, Schoenberg; Claudio Arrau 1
2004 Concerto for String Quartet / Lied der Waldtaube / The Book of the Hanging Gardens Arnold Schoenberg; Fred Sherry String Quartet, Twentieth Century Classics Ensemble, Robert Craft, Christopher Oldfather, Jennifer Lane 1
2004 Webern / Schoenberg / Berg Webern, Schoenberg, Berg; Quatuor Manfred, Marieke Koster 1
2005 Gurrelieder Schoenberg; Philharmonia Orchestra, Robert Craft 1
2005 Schönberg Schönberg; Accentus, Ensemble InterContemporain, Laurence Equilbey, Jonathan Nott 1
2005 String Trios Dohnányi, Schoenberg, Martinů; Leopold String Trio 1
2005 Schoenberg / Webern Schoenberg, Webern; Ulf Wallin, Torleif Thedéen, Roland Pöntinen 1
2005 Six A Cappella Mixed Choruses / String Quartet no. 2 / Suite in G for String Orchestra Arnold Schoenberg; Simon Joly Singers, Jennifer Welch-Babidge, Fred Sherry String Quartet, Twentieth Century Classics Ensemble, Robert Craft 1
2006 The Music of Arnold Schönberg Arnold Schönberg; Robert Craft 1
2006 Five Pieces for Orchestra / Cello Concerto / Piano Quartet Schoenberg; Fred Sherry, London Symphony Orchestra, Philharmonia Orchestra, Robert Craft 1
2006 Early and Unknown String Works Arnold Schönberg 5 1
2006 Serenade / Variations, Op. 31 / Bach Orchestrations Arnold Schönberg; Robert Craft 1
2007 Schoenberg: Verklärte Nacht / Berg: Lyrischen Suite / Webern: Passacaglia Schoennberg, Berg, Webern; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 1
2007 Schoenberg: Herzgewächse / Pierrot Lunaire / 4 Lieder / Kammersymphonie No. 1 (Philharmonia Orchestra of London feat. conductor: Robert Craft) Arnold Schönberg 1
2007 Six Songs for Soprano and Orchestra / The Golden Calf and the Altar / Kol Nidre / Friede auf Erden Schoenberg; Philharmonia Orchestra, Robert Craft, Simon Joly Chorale, Jennifer Welch-Babidge, David Wilson-Johnson 1
2008 Violin Concertos Schoenberg, Sibelius; Hilary Hahn, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra 3
2008 Chamber Symphony no. 2 / Die glückliche Hand / Wind Quintet Schoenberg; Robert Craft, Mark Beesley, Simon Joly Chorale, New York Woodwind Quintet, Philharmonia Orchestra 1
2008 Pelleas und Melisande / Erwartung Schoenberg; Philharmonia Orchestra, Robert Craft, Anja Silja 1
2008 Violin Concerto / A Survivor from Warsaw Arnold Schoenberg; Philharmonia Orchestra, Robert Craft, Rolf Schulte, David Wilson-Johnson, Simon Joly Chorale 1
2008 Complete Piano Works Schoenberg; Alexei Lubimov, Estonian State Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi 1
2008 Mozart: Divertimento, KV 563 / Schönberg: Streichtrio, op. 45 Mozart, Schönberg; Arnold-Schönberg-Trio 1

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