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Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg (German: [ˈaːʁnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛʁk]; 13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian composer and painter, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. With the rise of the Nazi Party, by 1938 Schoenberg's works were labelled as degenerate music because he was Jewish (Anon. 1997–2013); he moved to the United States in 1934.

Schoenberg's approach, both in terms of harmony and development, has been one of the most influential of 20th-century musical thought. Many European and American composers from at least three generations have consciously extended his thinking, whereas others have passionately reacted against it.

Schoenberg was known early in his career for simultaneously extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic styles of Brahms and Wagner. Later, his name would come to personify innovations in atonality (although Schoenberg himself detested that term) that would become the most polemical feature of 20th-century art music. In the 1920s, Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone technique, an influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale. He also coined the term developing variation and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motifs without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea.

Schoenberg was also a painter, an important music theorist, and an influential teacher of composition; his students included Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Hanns Eisler, Egon Wellesz, and later John Cage, Lou Harrison, Earl Kim, Leon Kirchner, and other prominent musicians. Many of Schoenberg's practices, including the formalization of compositional method and his habit of openly inviting audiences to think analytically, are echoed in avant-garde musical thought throughout the 20th century. His often polemical views of music history and aesthetics were crucial to many significant 20th-century musicologists and critics, including Theodor W. Adorno, Charles Rosen and Carl Dahlhaus, as well as the pianists Artur Schnabel, Rudolf Serkin, Eduard Steuermann and Glenn Gould.

Schoenberg's archival legacy is collected at the Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna.

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Discography

Album

Year Title Artist RatingReleases
1974 Moses und Aron (Chor und Sinfonieorchester des Österreichischen Rundfunks, feat. conductor: Michael Gielen, singers: Reich, Devos, Csapo, Obrowsky) Arnold Schönberg 1
1974 Pélleas et Mélisande Arnold Schönberg; Orchestre Philharmonique De Berlin, Herbert von Karajan 2
1979 15 Poems from Das Buch der hängenden Gärten / Eight Songs, op. 6 Arnold Schönberg; Erika Sziklay, Jenő Jandó 1
1981 Berg: Wozzeck / Schoenberg: Erwartung Berg, Schoenberg; Wiener Philharmoniker, Christoph von Dohnányi, Anja Silja, Eberhard Waechter 1
1984 Verklärte nacht / Streichtrio (LaSalle Quartet feat. viola: Donald McInnes, cello: Jonathan Pegis) Arnold Schönberg 1
1985 Moses und Aron (Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Chicago Symphony Chorus feat. conductor Sir Georg Solti) Arnold Schönberg 7
1985 Verklärte Nacht / Variationen für Orchester Arnold Schoenberg; Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan 1
1986 Verklärte Nacht (Schönberg Ensemble) Arnold Schönberg 1
1986 Violin Concerto / Piano Concerto Arnold Schönberg 1
1987 Orchesterstücke Anton Webern, Arnold Schönberg, Alban Berg; Berliner Philharmoniker, James Levine 1
1987 Zemlinsky: Trio, op. 3 / Schönberg: Verklärte Nacht, op. 4 Zemlinsky, Schönberg; Clementi-Trio 1
1988 The Piano Music Arnold Schoenberg; Maurizio Pollini 1
1988 Piano Music Arnold Schönberg; Paul Jacobs 1
1989 La Nuit Transfigurée Arnold Schönberg; Le Quatuor Talich 3
1990 Pierrot Lunaire / Serenade / Die Eiserne Brigade (London Sinfonietta feat. conductor: David Atherton) Arnold Schönberg 1
1990 Mahler: Symphony no. 10 / Schoenberg: Verklarte Nacht Mahler, Schoenberg; RSO Berlin, Riccardo Chailly 1
1990 Gurrelieder Arnold Schönberg; Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin, Riccardo Chailly 1
1990 Kammersymphonie Op. 9 / Suite Op. 29 / Kaiserwalzer (Wiener Concert-Verein feat. conductor: Martin Sieghart) Arnold Schönberg 1
1990 Lieder Arnold Schönberg, Alban Berg; Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Aribert Reimann 1
1990 Pelléas et Mélisande Arnold Schönberg, Jean Sibelius, Gabriel Fauré; Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Zubin Mehta 2
1990 Verklärte Nacht / Kammersymphonien Arnold Schönberg; Orpheus Chamber Orchestra 1
1991 Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique / Schönberg: Verklärte Nacht Berlioz, Schönberg; Wiener Symphoniker, Georges Prêtre, Israel Chamber Orchestra, Yoav Talmi 1
1991 Ensemble Kaléidocollage : Pierrot Lunaire / La Vie en rouge Arnold Schönberg / Edison Denissov 1
1991 Schoenberg: Pierrot Lunaire / Webern: Concerto, op. 24 Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern; Nash Ensemble, Simon Rattle, Jane Manning 2
1992 Orchesterstücke / Erwartung / Die glückliche Hand / Arnold Schönberg 1
1992 String Quartets Nos. 1-4 (Kolisch Quartet) Arnold Schönberg 1
1993 Verklärte Nacht, Op. 4 / Trio, Op. 45 Schoenberg; Juilliard String Quartet, Walter Trampler, Yo‐Yo Ma 1
1993 Pierrot Lunaire / Lied der Waldtaube / Erwartung Schoenberg; Pierre Boulez 1
1993 Pierrot Lunaire Arnold Schönberg; Marianne Pousseur, Ensemble Musique Oblique, Philippe Herreweghe 1
1993 Glückliche Hand / Variations / Verklärte Nacht (Pierre Boulez) Arnold Schönberg 1
1993 Die Jakobsleiter, Kammersymphonie No. 1 (BBC Singers, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Ensemble InterContemporain feat. conductor: Pierre Boulez) Arnold Schönberg 1
1993 Erwartung; Brettl-Lieder (Metropolitan Opera Orchestra feat. soprano Jessye Norman) Arnold Schönberg 1
1993 Moses und Aron / Kammersymphonie Nr. 2 (BBC Symphony Orchestra, feat. conductor: Pierre Boulez, singers Reich, Cassilly, Palmer, Knight) Arnold Schönberg 1
1993 Suite / Verklärte Nacht / 3 Pieces (Members of the Ensemble InterContemperain feat. conductor: Pierre Boulez) Arnold Schönberg 1
1994 Moses und Aron (Rundfunk-Sinfonie-Orchester Leipzig, Rundfunkchor Leipzig feat. conductor Herbert Kegel) Arnold Schönberg 1
1994 The Glenn Gould Edition: Arnold Schoenberg: Pierrot Lunaire, Piano Concerto, etc. Arnold Schönberg 1
1995 Choral Works (Südfunk-Chor Stuttgart feat. conductor: Rupert Huber) Arnold Schönberg 1
1995 Five Orchestra Pieces / Survivor from Warsaw (London Symphony Orchestra feat. conductor: Robert Craft, narrator: Simon Callow) Arnold Schönberg 1
1995 Gurrelieder Arnold Schönberg; Wiener Philharmoniker, Konzertvereinigung Wiener Staatsopernchor, Arnold Schönberg Chor, Slowakischer Philharmonischer Chor Bratislava, Sharon Sweet, Siegfried Jerusalem, Marjana Lipovšek, Hartmut Welker, Philip Langridge, Barbara Sukowa, Claudio Abbado 1
1995 Reflections Ravel, Decaux, Schönberg; Frederic Chiu 1
1996 The Early Tonal Years (1894-1907) Arnold Schönberg 1
1996 Gurrelieder Arnold Schoenberg; Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden, Giuseppe Sinopoli 1
1996 Moses und Aron Arnold Schönberg; Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Pierre Boulez, David Pittman-Jennings, Chris Merritt 1
1996 Transfiguration Beethoven, Mahler, Schoenberg; Smithsonian Chamber Players, Kenneth Slowik 1
1997 Messiaen: Quatuor pour la fin du temps / Schönberg: Ein Stelldichein / Martinů: Oboe Quartet Messiaen, Schönberg, Martinů; Helén Jahren, Håkan Rosengren, Per Enoksson, Mats Rondin, Stefan Bojsten 1
1997 Sämtliche Werke für Klavier zu Zwei Händen Arnold Schönberg; Chen Pi-hsien 1
1997 Transfigured Night Schoenberg; Esa-Pekka Salonen; Stockholms Nya Kammarorkester 1
1998 Pelleas Und Melisande Op. 5, Variations Op. 31 Arnold Schönberg 1
1998 Verklärte Nacht / Pelleas und Melisande (Berliner Philharmoniker feat. conductor: Herbert von Karajan) Arnold Schönberg 1
1999 Piano Music Schoenberg, Berg, Webern; Peter Hill 1

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