Pierre Boulez CBE (French: [pjɛʁ bu.lɛːz]; 26 March 1925 – 5 January 2016) was a French composer and conductor as well as a writer and pianist. He was the founder and director of the Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM) based in Paris.
In his early career, Boulez played an important role in the development of integral serialism, electronic and controlled chance music. The type of music which interested him, along with his highly polemical views on music evolution, gave him the reputation of enfant terrible.
As a conductor, Boulez was known mainly for his performances of Béla Bartók, Alban Berg, Anton Bruckner, Claude Debussy, Gustav Mahler, Maurice Ravel, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Edgard Varèse and Anton Webern. He was chosen to conduct the Jahrhundertring, the performance of Wagner's Ring cycle for the centenary of the Bayreuth Festival, and he conducted works by his contemporaries Elliott Carter and György Ligeti. He received a total of 26 Grammy Awards during his career. On 5 January 2016, Boulez died at his home in Baden-Baden, aged 90.